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Chapter 9: Launching a New Republic

Chapter 9: Launching a New Republic

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Chapter 9: Launching a New Republic

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  1. Chapter 9: Launching a New Republic Test Review

  2. George Washington • 1st President of the United States • Reluctant President • Set many precedents as president • A precedent is a decision someone makes on how to handle an issue that then becomes a “rule” on how others will follow later in dealing with similar situations. • Appointed a cabinet of officials to give him advice on how to deal with issues while he was president. • He only ran for president twice, this was followed by each president until Franklin D. Roosevelt ran 4 times during the 1930s and 40s.

  3. Presidential Cabinet • During his presidency, Washington set up a cabinet with three departments • Department of State: Thomas Jefferson • Department of War: Henry Knox • Treasury Department: Alexander Hamilton

  4. Alexander Hamilton • 1st Secretary of the Treasury • Thought the way to pay for our Revolutionary War debt was to raise money through tariffs • Thought the US should be urban (full of cities and manufacturing)

  5. Hamilton & The National Bank • Hamilton wanted to create an official bank of the US because he believed that having a bank to issue currency and make business loans would strengthen the United States. • His 3 part plan: • Create a national bank • Pay off war debts (using revenue from tariffs) • Raise money for the government

  6. Necessary and Proper Clause • AKA: the ‘elastic’ clause • Gives Congress more powers than just those listed in the Constitution

  7. Thomas Jefferson • 1st Secretary of State • Wanted the expansion of states’ rights • Wanted a weak federal government and a strong state government • Wanted the US to be more rural and full of farmers • Member of the Democratic Republican party

  8. Federal Judiciary Act 1789 • Signed into law by Washington • Congress set up a court system • Act gave Supreme Court six members • 5 Justices and 1 Chief Justice • Set up lower, less powerful federal court system

  9. Whiskey Rebellion • Congress decided to tax luxury items, like whiskey • Many farmers simply refused to pay it • In an effort to end protests, they lowered the tax. Many paid, but the “Whiskey Boys” tarred and feathered tax collectors that tried to enforce the law • Washington believed the rebellion was a threat to the authority of the national government and lead 13,000 militia to stop the threat • They stopped the rebellion and proved the new government was strong and powerful

  10. Washington’s Farewell Address • Avoid entangling alliances • Trade is fine, but don’t become involved in anything happening across the ocean or we might get pulled into their problems. • Warned against creating political parties • Warned against taxing the American people too heavily

  11. Political Parties

  12. XYZ Affair • Issue faced by John Adams when he took over the Presidential office • France and Britain were at war • France began seizing US ships and looting them to prevent US trade with Britain • Adams sent an ambassador to France to try to work things out • For several weeks no one would talk to them, until three French men (X,Y, and Z) said they could meet with France for $10 million • The ambassadors refused and reported it back to John Adams • Adams cancelled its treaties with France and allowed the US to seize French ships • Adams also set aside money to expand the navy and the army

  13. Alien and Sedition Acts • First laws John Adams enacted • Alien Acts • Extended time it took for an immigrant to become a citizen with the right to vote from 5 to 14 years • Allowed the president to jail or deport aliens that were suspected of activity against the government • Sedition Act • Stated that ‘printing, uttering, or publishing any false scandalous and malicious writing’ against the government was a crime. • Used to punish Republican newspaper editors who insulted President Adams

  14. Executive Branch • Vetoes bills • Negotiate treaties • Commander in chief of the military

  15. Vocabulary • Strict Construction • Loose Construction • Tariff • Neutrality • Treasury • Propose • Bias • Precedent • Foreign • Enact