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Chapter 10 1995 - 2001. Internet Time. 1995 - 2001. Netscape + Internet Microsoft + Lawsuits UNIX – GNU + LINUX Dot com . Microsoft and Apple. 1984 Mac TV Commercial Not IBM, but Microsoft problem Early days, Apple & MS worked together BASIC for Apple Mac

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1995 2001
1995 - 2001
  • Netscape + Internet
  • Microsoft + Lawsuits
  • UNIX – GNU + LINUX
  • Dot com
microsoft and apple
Microsoft and Apple
  • 1984 Mac TV Commercial
    • Not IBM, but Microsoft problem
  • Early days, Apple & MS worked together
    • BASIC for Apple
  • Mac
    • Magnificent interface; no applications
    • MacPaint and MacWrite
    • MS Multiplan – MS spreadsheet
    • 1982 – MS had agreed to develop software for Mac
    • 1985 – MS Excel for Mac
  • MS programmers learned to program for GUI
    • Charles Simonyi, Xerox PARC, WP Bravo for Alto
in the meantime
In the meantime…
  • MS wanted Mac interface for 8086
    • Separate products, common interface
  • MS reputation not good
    • Lotus 1-2-3, WordPerfect were better
    • Lotus was developing suites
      • Symphony for PC, Jazz for Mac
    • Other sw being developed
how did ms beat apple
How did MS beat Apple?

1984

  • MS, Intel licensed products
    • Result: clones
    • Variety and less cost
  • Windows GUI
  • MS Office – 80% of Mac capability at much lower price
  • 1995: MS/Intel became standard
microsoft lawsuit
Microsoft Lawsuit
  • Anti-Trust / Monopoly – like IBM
  • Filed 1997 – settled November 2001
  • Several states & European union refused to go along – pending
  • As with IBM, will advances in technology negate court actions?
sw development at ms
SW Development at MS
  • Charles Simonyi, Hungary
    • 1970’s – Xerox PARC – BRAVO – WYSIWYG WP
  • “Hungarian” Programming
    • To manage large, complex projects & large teams
    • All code for a project submitted to central file at end of day; compiled into a daily “build”
    • If your part caused crash, you had to fix it
    • “Build” was basis for next day’s work
    • Once functional, team had to use it
sw development at ms cont
SW Development at MS (cont.)

MS Results:

  • No social or family life, eating from vending machines, “death march” to fix build
  • Steady stream of “improved” versions of Windows & an ever expanding suite of applications
  • MS had purchased many applications then rewrote for Windows
  • MS Office
internet explorer legal problems
Internet Explorer & Legal Problems
  • Bundled Internet Explorer with Windows
  • Bought license for Spyglass, a browser
    • A descendent of Mosaic
  • Prevented Spyglass from selling a Windows version of the browser
  • Internet Explorer 4.0 released 1997
    • Netscape & Justice Department claimed “tight integration” was contrary to anti-trust laws
legal precedent
Legal Precedent
  • “Look and Feel”
    • 1987: Lotus vs. Paperback S.W.
    • Copied “look & feel” → illegal
  • FUD – “Fear, Uncertainty, & Doubt”
    • 1960’s: Data General vs. IBM
    • Announced IBM 360 just to “scare” customers of Data General
legal precedent cont
Legal Precedent (cont.)
  • Tie-In
    • Well-established in anti-trust legislation
    • “Tie-in” required customer to purchase another product to get desired one
charges against ms
Charges Against MS
  • 1990: FTC investigated agreements with IBM – OS/2 development
  • 1990: FTC – MS gained access to a prototype pen-based computer by GO – MS announced at a trade show it would integrate pen-based input into Windows
  • Never did; GO folded (FUD)
charges against ms13
Charges Against MS
  • 1994: Justice Department – bundling products into Windows – threats only
    • Consent Decree: would not “tie” sales of one product to another (i.e. require purchase of another product)
    • Would also release API details to other SW developers
charges against ms14
Charges Against MS
  • By 1995 – customers seldom “bought” Windows
    • Came on the computer
    • Made distribution costs lower
    • Consent Decree: MS could NOT require h.w. company to install Windows – but did charge per chip; not per install
  • 1995 – MS announced planned purchased if Intuit (Quicken), one of few application companies with a significant market share
    • Dropped when Justice Department objected
    • MS Programmers had learned much about product
charges against ms15
Charges Against MS
  • 1997: Internet Explorer 4.0 – bundled
    • Netscape claimed a MS “tie-in”
      • 1994 – Netscape posted free Navigator on Web (individuals)
      • Business paid small fee
      • “Lock-in” customers to pay for additional products
      • Their stock soared
    • 1996 – AOL chose IE over Navigator
      • Violated consent decree – “tie in”
      • Since free – cutoff Netscape’s revenue
charges against ms16
1998: “Look & Feel” of Mac in Windows 2.0

Apple had licensed interface for v. 1.0

More than year, dropped, both needed cooperation

Charges Against MS
microsoft defense
Microsoft Defense???
  • 1997: Steve Ballmer
    • “to heck with Janet Reno”
  • 1998: Gates deposition
    • nervous & evasive
  • MS internal e-mails
    • very embarrassing
the prosecution
The Prosecution
  • Judge Thomas P. Jackson:
    • In an interview stated prejudice against MS
    • Caused most of his judgment overturned in 2001
    • Was removed from case
ms and networking
MS and Networking
  • 1995: Introduced MSN – proprietary n.w.
  • 1996: Exchange – groupware communications system
  • Outlook: e-mail
  • Free Services
    • Yahoo, Hotmail – portals
  • 1997: MS bought Hotmail - $400 million
    • Runs on UNIX
  • MS presence on Web grows
arpanet and internet
ARPANET and Internet

William Wulf, May 1993:

“I don’t think any of us know where this is going anymore, … but there’s something exciting happening, and it’s big.”

-Former DEC Engineer

-NSF in late 1980’s

paul ceruzzi
Paul Ceruzzi
  • November 1997
  • Shaquille O’Neal billboard
    • www.Shaq.com
  • Internet was now part of entertainment, consumer spending, and popular culture
  • Mainstream America
acceptable use policy nsf 1990
Acceptable Use Policy – NSF - 1990
  • NSFnet: 1988 – 1995
  • “NSF backbone services are provided to support open research & education in and among US research and instructional institutions, plus research arms of for-profit firms when engaged in open scholarly communication & research. Use for other purposes is not acceptable.”
acceptable use policy nsf 199023
Acceptable Use Policy – NSF – 1990
  • Allowed “announcements of new products or activities… but not advertising of any kind”
  • Allowed “communication incidental to otherwise acceptable use, except for illegal or specifically unacceptable use”
  • Unacceptable: “Extensive use for private or personal use”
growth of internet
Growth of Internet
  • By 1992 – restrictions lifted
  • Jan. 1992 – one trillion bytes/month
  • Jan. 1994 – 10 trillion bytes/month
  • 1995 – NSF net “dissolved”
    • Structure for commercialization was already there
internet legislation
Internet Legislation
  • 1999: Al Gore – CNN interview “… took the initiative in creating the Internet.”
  • 1992: Congressman Rick Boucher, Va.
    • Amendment to support networks for purposes other than research & education
    • When signed by President Bush (#1) – ended “acceptable use policy”
congress vision of internet
Congress’ Vision of Internet
  • Summary pg. 322
  • Opposite of what happened
  • High-speed government n.w. for research
  • Researchers would pay for use
  • Telecommunications companies would build and charge
slide27
Java
  • Bill Joy – SUN
    • Need a new language
    • Advances of C++, with low-level of C or assembly
  • 1991: James Gosling at SUN
    • Oak – renamed Java
    • Announced March 1995
java 2
Java #2
  • Could run on almost any computer
  • Web designers: animation, movement, interactivity
  • “Write once – Run anywhere”
  • UCSD – p-system – 1980’s
    • Pascal based
    • 2 stage translation – failed
  • Now HW was faster
java hype
Java Hype
  • Media: way to break MS hold on personal computing
  • MS got license from SUN
  • Embraced by those wanting to sell via Internet
early dot com sites
Early dot.com Sites
  • Amazon – 1995
    • Jeff Bezos
    • 1995 – 100 orders/day
    • 2000 – 100 orders/minute
    • Dec. 99 – Bezos Times Person of Year
  • eBay – 1995
    • Pierre Omidyar
    • 2001 – 7 million on-going auctions
policing the internet
Policing the Internet
  • Amazon
    • Customers wrote book reviews
  • eBay
    • Feedback on buyers & sellers
  • Individuals provided control & screening service that the company could not
search engines portals
Search Engines & Portals
  • Sites to help users navigate the web
  • 1994 – Yahoo! – Filo & Yang
    • Students at Stanford
    • Key-word index
  • Alta Vista – early search engine
  • Google
    • Sergei Brin & Larry Page
    • Ranks based on other links
web critics
Web Critics
  • Tim Berners-Lee
    • Not tailored for personal use
  • Doug Englebart, Ted Nelson
    • Why must we all use http?
    • Web is one-way, shouldn’t be
  • Scientific use has been forgotten
tragedy of the commons
Tragedy of the Commons
  • 1968 – Garrett Hardin, biologist
  • Contrasts benefits to individuals vs. damage to common resource
  • Only regulation will prevent tragedy
  • Internet hasn’t come close to tragedy
    • Worms, viruses, Y2K, 9-11,dot.com collapse
    • Pollution – pop-ups, porn, spam
linux
Linux
  • Linus Torvalds – Finland – born 1969
  • 1991 – goal to write PC version of UNIX
  • Studied Minix – Tannenbaum’s version
  • Discussion Group
    • Asked for likes/dislikes of Minix
    • Posted Linux in 1992
  • Continued to grow in size & quality due to contributions of many
slide36
GNU

Richard Stallman, MIT

  • GCC – GNU C Complier
    • Used for Linux
  • Asked for public support for free GNU software system
gnu general public license
GNU General Public License
  • Place GNU in public domain
  • All modifications must also be placed in public domain
  • SW using it must be in public domain
  • Can sell it, though
  • MS Criticism: not the “American way” of free enterprise