Chapter 14, Section 2 SPONGE Where did factory workers usually live by the 1850’s? (p.413) Define “discrimination.” (p.417)
Life in the North Chapter 14, Section 2
Setting the Scene Alzina Parsons never forgot her thirteenth birthday. She began the day working in the local spinning mill. Suddenly she cried out. Her hand had been caught in the spinning machine – badly mangling her hand. The factory doctor cut off one of the injured fingers and sent the girl back to work.
Setting the Scene Twenty years earlier, such an accident probably would not have happened. Factory work was hard, but mill owners treated workers like human beings. By the 1840’s, however, there was an oversupply of workers. Many factory owners now treated workers like machines.
A Change in Values Factories of the 1840’s and 1850’s were very different from the mills of the early 1800’s. Factories used steam-powered machines, so they could be built anywhere. They were also larger. Laborers worked longer hours for lower wages. Usually, workers lived in dark, dingy houses in the shadow of the factory.
A Change in Values Before the growth of factories, skilled workers called artisans made high quality goods. Factory owners were usually more interested in producing large amounts instead of high quality. Factory workers had no hope of owning their own business or working creatively.
A Change in Values Now the entire family awoke with the factory bell at 4 a.m. They left for home at 9:30 p.m. There were no laws keeping factories safe or comfortable, and injured workers usually lost their jobs.
Workers Join Together In the 1830’s, workers began to form trade unions, which called for improvements in working conditions. They sometimes went on strike for higher pay and fewer hours. In a strike, workers refused to work as a protest against poor working conditions. However, at this time strikes were made illegal in most parts of the U.S.
Progress for Artisans • Slowly, workers made progress. In certain places, strikes were made legal and the workday was limited to 10 hours. • Unskilled factory workers, however, were easily replaced. Employers did not listen to their demands.
A New Wave of Immigrants • By the late 1840’s, many factory workers in the North were immigrants. • In that decade, about 4 million immigrants arrived in the U.S. • At this time a disease destroyed the potato crop in Ireland, which was the main food of poor Irish people. • This potato disease caused a famine, or severe food shortage, in Ireland.
From Ireland and Germany • Thousands in Ireland died from starvation and disease. Between 1845 and 1860, over 1.5 million Irish fled to the U.S. • Germans were also flooding into the U.S. at the time. Harsh weather in Germany resulted in severe food shortages. In 1848, revolutions around Germany failed. Over 1 million Germans fled to the U.S. to escape persecution and revenge.
In what year were there more than twice as many Irish immigrants as there were German ones? Where are the immigrants shown on this chart from? Year 1820 Irish Immigrants German Immigrants 1830 1840 1850 1860 025 50 75 100 125 150 175 Number of Immigrants (in the thousands)
Enriching the Nation • Immigrants supplied much of the labor that helped the economy grow. • Though most of the Irish were farmers in the old country, few had money to buy farms. Most became laborers in New England. • Germans generally came with more money, and bought their own land or businesses throughout the Midwest. • German Jews also came to America for the first time.
A Reaction Against Immigrants • Not everyone welcomed the immigrants. One group called the nativists wanted to preserve the country for native-born, white citizens. • Using the term “Americans must rule America,” they called for laws to limit immigration and immigrants’ rights.
A Reaction Against Immigrants • Nativists claimed that newcomers stole their jobs because they worked for lower pay. • When native workers went on strike they would be replaced by immigrants. • Many distrusted immigrants because of their odd customs and the Irish were criticized because they were Catholic.
I Know Nothing • By the 1850’s hostility toward immigrants was so strong that nativists formed a political party called the “Know-Nothing Party.” • The group was anti-Catholic and anti-immigrant. • When asked about the secret meetings and rituals of the party, a member would state, “I know nothing.” • The party grew powerful in the 1850’s, but died out during the Civil War.
African Americans in the North • By the early 1800’s all northern states had outlawed slavery. As a result, thousands of free African Americans lived and worked in the North. • Free blacks faced discrimination, a policy or attitude that denies equal rights to certain groups. • They were denied the ballot-box, jury box, halls of the legislature, the army, public lands, school and the church.
From the memoir of a free African American living in the North “We went every day… with our books wrapped in paper to prevent the police or white persons from seeing them.” • Why would this person continue to go each day? • To eliminate discrimination • To achieve success in a job • To organize a trade union Where was the author of this quote most likely going?
Some Success • Despite obstacles, some African Americans earned great success in business. • Others became the first to create new farm inventions, graduate with law degrees or become editors of newspapers. John Russwurm, editor of the first African American newspaper.
Cotton Kingdom in the South Chapter 14, Section 3
Cotton Gin, Cotton Boom • Cotton became such a profitable crop in the 1830’s that the South (and the slave system) came to depend on it. • Northern factories needed cotton more than ever, but at first the South could not grow enough to meet their demands. • Cleaning the seeds from cotton was just too slow.
Cotton Gin, Cotton Boom • When a young teacher named Eli Whitney learned of this problem, he decided to make a machine that would clean cotton. • In ten days, Whitney had made his cotton engine (gin). It used wire teeth to sweep the seeds out of cotton fiber. • One slave using a cotton gin could do the job of 50 people. Southern planters were finally able to boost their profits by growing cotton.
The Cotton Kingdom • The cotton gin led to a boom in cotton production. • However, cotton plants quickly wore out the soil. • To find more cotton land planters continued to move west, and they took slavery with them. • You would think that planters would need fewer slaves thanks to the cotton gin…
The Cotton Kingdom • However, planters needed more slaves to plant and pick more cotton and run more cotton gins. • With the profit, planters could buy more land and more slaves and make even larger profits. • This cycle made slavery a vital part of southern life by the 1840’s.
An Agricultural Economy • Cotton wasn’t the only part of the southern economy, but there was still very few factories in the South. • An agricultural economy developed in the South because the land and climate were ideal for cotton, rice and livestock. • Tobacco and sugar were also important cash crops grown in the south. Kentucky became famous for breeding horses.
Limited Industry • The South did have some factories, but they mostly only made farm tools like plows and gins. • Rich southern planters preferred to spend their money on land and slaves instead of building factories. • There was also less of a demand for manufactured goods in the South because slaves could not buy these goods.
Economically Dependent • With few factories, the South came to depend more and more on the North and Europe. • Southern planters often borrowed money from northern banks to buy farm tools and northern goods. • Though proud of their cotton industry, many southerners were bitter over their reliance on the North.