How can we quantitatively describe what an animal is doing? - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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How can we quantitatively describe what an animal is doing? PowerPoint Presentation
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How can we quantitatively describe what an animal is doing?

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How can we quantitatively describe what an animal is doing?
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How can we quantitatively describe what an animal is doing?

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  1. How can we quantitatively describe what an animal is doing? Observation and sampling techniques employed by behaviorists

  2. Scientific Method Review • Observation • Question • Hypothesis • Experiment • Analysis

  3. Reconnaissance Observation • Done AFTER hypothesis is formulated • Note-taking • Research also important

  4. Ethogram • A set of comprehensive descriptions of the characteristic behavior patterns of a species • Sometimes entire repertoire, often more limited • observe subject for extended period of time • objectively define behaviors so distinguishable • properly classify these behaviors

  5. Body parts movements postures Function of behavior is known because of extensive study Empirical v. Functional

  6. Rules • Behaviors must be carefully and operationally defined • Definitions must be clear and concise • Behaviors must be mutually exclusive • Sometimes must be exhaustive

  7. Behaviors of sufficient duration that they can be timed with a stopwatch Discrete behaviors that are usually brief and cannot accurately be timed States v. events Some data collection methods are better for recording events and some for states. Some can analyze both.

  8. Ad libitum (ad lib) • Field notes • informal

  9. Focal sampling • Single individual or sub-group • Continuously recorded data for all behaviors in ethogram

  10. Sampling all occurrences of some behaviors • Partial record of selected behaviors in repertoire • Record data continuously for selected behaviors

  11. Sequence sampling • Order of occurrence of selected behaviors • Similar to focal and all occurrences of some behaviors sampling • Sampling begins when sequence begins and ends when sequence is over

  12. Instantaneous or scan sampling • Measures behavior at pre-set time intervals • Instantaneous – individual • Scan - group

  13. Modified frequency sampling (one/zero sampling) • Score occurrence or nonoccurrence of selected behaviors within a time interval • 1 = occurred, 0 = did not occur

  14. REMINDERS • TEST MONDAY 2/23 • REVIEW WILL BE POSTED ON COURSE PAGE OVER BREAK • PERMISSION SLIPS MUST BE NOTARIZED AND TURNED IN ASAP!