How can we quantitatively describe what an animal is doing? Observation and sampling techniques employed by behaviorists
Scientific Method Review • Observation • Question • Hypothesis • Experiment • Analysis
Reconnaissance Observation • Done AFTER hypothesis is formulated • Note-taking • Research also important
Ethogram • A set of comprehensive descriptions of the characteristic behavior patterns of a species • Sometimes entire repertoire, often more limited • observe subject for extended period of time • objectively define behaviors so distinguishable • properly classify these behaviors
Body parts movements postures Function of behavior is known because of extensive study Empirical v. Functional
Rules • Behaviors must be carefully and operationally defined • Definitions must be clear and concise • Behaviors must be mutually exclusive • Sometimes must be exhaustive
Behaviors of sufficient duration that they can be timed with a stopwatch Discrete behaviors that are usually brief and cannot accurately be timed States v. events Some data collection methods are better for recording events and some for states. Some can analyze both.
Ad libitum (ad lib) • Field notes • informal
Focal sampling • Single individual or sub-group • Continuously recorded data for all behaviors in ethogram
Sampling all occurrences of some behaviors • Partial record of selected behaviors in repertoire • Record data continuously for selected behaviors
Sequence sampling • Order of occurrence of selected behaviors • Similar to focal and all occurrences of some behaviors sampling • Sampling begins when sequence begins and ends when sequence is over
Instantaneous or scan sampling • Measures behavior at pre-set time intervals • Instantaneous – individual • Scan - group
Modified frequency sampling (one/zero sampling) • Score occurrence or nonoccurrence of selected behaviors within a time interval • 1 = occurred, 0 = did not occur
REMINDERS • TEST MONDAY 2/23 • REVIEW WILL BE POSTED ON COURSE PAGE OVER BREAK • PERMISSION SLIPS MUST BE NOTARIZED AND TURNED IN ASAP!