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Chapter 1 Assessing the Environment – Political, Economic, Legal, Technological. Kristopher Blanchard North Central University. The Global Business Environment. The Global Marketplace is complex, interdependent, and dynamic Challenges include politics, culture, and technology

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chapter 1 assessing the environment political economic legal technological

Chapter 1 Assessing the Environment – Political, Economic, Legal, Technological

Kristopher Blanchard

North Central University

the global business environment
The Global Business Environment
  • The Global Marketplace is complex, interdependent, and dynamic
  • Challenges include politics, culture, and technology
  • Managers must find a balance between social responsibility, company image, and competitive strategies
  • More focused on Global Management
the global business environment1
The Global Business Environment
  • Global competition is characterized by networks that bind countries to one another
  • Globalism trends
    • A borderless world
    • Increase in exports
    • Increase in direct foreign investment
    • Dominance of trading blocs
regional trading blocs
Regional Trading Blocs

“The dominance of the United States is already over. What is emerging is a world economy of blocs represented by NAFTA, The European Union, and ASEAN. There’s no one center in this world economy.”

- Peter Drucker

Fortune, January 12, 2004

regional trading blocs1
Regional Trading Blocs
  • TRIAD Market
  • European Union
  • Asian Market
    • China, Japan, South Asia
the triad
  • Three regional free-trade blocs
    • Western Europe, Asia, and North America
  • Grouped around three dominant currencies
    • Euro, Yen, and Dollar
  • In 2004, these trade blocs were expanding their boarders to include neighboring countries
comparative management in focus india
Comparative Management in Focus - India
  • India has witnessed a change in values, habits and options during the last decade
  • The economy, second fastest growing in the world, is expected to grow close to 7% this year
  • Fastest growing telecom market with more than one million new mobile phone subscriptions per month
comparative management in focus india1
Comparative Management in Focus - India
  • Indians are buying 10,000 motorcycles a day
  • India had 192 million households in 2001
    • Only 31.6% have a television
    • Only 2.5% have a car, jeep or van
  • Foreign investors have invested $5 billion into the Indian stock market
information technology
Information Technology
  • Information Technology is transforming the international manager’s agenda more than any other item
  • Information is no longer centrally or secretly controlled by governments
  • Information technology is boosting productivity and electronic commerce around the world
the globalization of human capital
The Globalization of Human Capital

Globalization means we share jobs as well as goods.


August 27, 2003

the globalization of human capital1
The Globalization of Human Capital
  • Forrester Research predicts that 3.3 Million US jobs will move offshore by 2015
  • 45% of the 500 US companies surveyed state that they use a global sourcing model
the political and economic environment
The Political and Economic Environment
  • One important aspect is the phenomenon of ethnicity
    • Driving force behind political instability
  • Firms must assess political risks
    • Government actions that could adversely affect the long-run profitability or value of a firm
political risk 7 typical risk events
Political Risk – 7 Typical risk events
  • Expropriation of corporate assets without prompt and adequate compensation
  • Forced sale of equity to host-country nationals, usually at or below depreciated book value
  • Discriminatory treatment against foreign firms in the application of regulations or laws
  • Barriers to repatriation of funds (profits or equity)
political risk 7 typical risk events1
Political Risk – 7 Typical risk events
  • Loss of technology or other intellectual property (such as patents, trademarks, or trade names)
  • Interference in managerial decision making
  • Dishonesty by government officials, including canceling or altering contractual agreements, extortion demands, and so forth
managing political risk
Managing Political Risk
  • Avoidance – either the avoidance or withdrawal of investment in a particular country
  • Adaptation – adjust to the political environment
  • Dependency – keeping the host nation dependent on the parent corporation
  • Hedging – minimizing the losses associated with political risk events
economic risk
Economic Risk
  • A country’s level of economic development generally determines its economic stability
  • Economic risk falls into 2 categories
    • Government changes its fiscal policies
    • Government modifies its foreign-investment policies
  • Managers are constantly reassessing economic risk
the legal environment
The Legal Environment
  • Manager’s will comply with the host country’s legal system
    • Common Law – past court decisions act as precedents to the interpretation of the law
    • Civil Law – comprehensive set of laws organized into codes, interpretation is based on reference to codes and statues
    • Muslim law – based on religious beliefs, it dominates all aspects of life
the legal environment1
The Legal Environment
  • Commenting on Contract Law

“In China, the old joke goes, a contract is a pause in the negotiation.”


the technological environment
The Technological Environment
  • Corporations must consider the accelerating macro-environmental phenomenon of technoglobalism (rapid developments in information and communication technologies)
  • Corporations must consider the appropriability of technology
global e business
Global E-Business
  • E-business – the integration of systems, processes, organizations, value chains and entire markets using Internet-based and related technologies and concepts.
  • E-commerce - refers directly to the marketing and sales process via the Internet
global e business1
Global E-Business
  • Convenience in conducting business worldwide; facilitating communication across borders contributes to the shift toward globalization and a global market.
  • An electronic meeting and trading place, which adds efficiency in conducting business sales.
  • A corporate Intranet service, merging internal and external information for enterprises worldwide.
  • Power to consumers as they gain access to limitless options and price differentials.
  • A link and efficiency in distribution.
looking ahead
Looking Ahead
  • Chapter 2 – Social Responsibility and Ethics
    • The Social Responsibility of MNC’s
    • Ethics in Global Management
    • Managing Interdependence