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Franklin Delano Roosevelt. Democratic Party 32 nd President of the United States of America (1933-1945). Occupational and Educational Background. Lawyer US Senator New York Governor. Went to Groton School then on to Harvard University

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franklin delano roosevelt
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
  • Democratic Party
  • 32nd President of the United States of America (1933-1945)

occupational and educational background
Occupational and Educational Background
  • Lawyer
  • US Senator
  • New York Governor
  • Went to Groton School then on to Harvard University
  • Columbia Law School

vice presidents and secretaries of state under madison
Vice Presidents and Secretaries of State under Madison

Vice Presidents

  • John N. Garner (1933–1941)
  • Henry A. Wallace (1941–1945)
  • Harry Truman (1945)

Secretaries of State

  • Cordell Hull (1933–1944)
  • Edward R. Stettinius Jr. (1944–1945)
  • Other Important Cabinet Members
  • Henry L. Stimson (1940–1945)

election of 1932
Election of 1932
  • Franklin D. Roosevelt- Democratic Party; 472 electoral votes; 22,821,857 popular votes
  • Herbert C. Hoover- Republican Party; 59 electoral votes; 15,761,845 popular votes

Reasons Roosevelt Won:

  • The idea of the “New Deal” to get America out of the Depression gave everyone hope so they voted for him.
election of 1936
Election of 1936
  • Franklin D. Roosevelt- Democratic Party; 523 electoral votes; 27,476,673 popular votes
  • Alfred M. Landon- Republican Party; 8 electoral votes; 16,679,583 popular votes

Reasons Roosevelt Won:

  • There was very little competition by the Republicans and most of the Americans still believed in his actions to get them out of the Depression.
election of 1940
Election of 1940
  • Franklin D. Roosevelt- Democratic Party; 449 electoral votes; 27,243,466 popular votes
  • Wendell L. Willkie- Republican Party; 82 electoral votes; 22,304,755 popular votes

Reasons Roosevelt Won:

  • People believed more in Roosevelt than Willkie to lead the nation during a time of warfare even though they both preached of staying out of the war.
election of 1944
Election of 1944
  • Franklin D. Roosevelt- Democratic Party; 432 electoral votes; 25,602,505 popular votes
  • Thomas E. Dewey- Republican Party; 99 electoral votes; 22,006,278 popular votes

Reasons Roosevelt Won:

  • The people wanted peace from the war and knew that if Roosevelt could lead them out of a depression to a leading economic power, then he could get them out of the war.
fdr begins his second term as president 1937
FDR Begins his Second term as President (1937)
  • FDR received 523 electoral votes in the 1936 election.
  • This was the time leading up to the beginning of WWII

united auto workers sit down strikes 1937
United Auto Workers’ sit down strikes (1937)
  • Main Issue- Workers went on strike to gain dignity and respect in the form of better working conditions, wages and benefits.
  • Future Significance-The working environment for workers in every walk of life, in the United States and around the world were vastly improved due to this moment in Labor History.

court packing plan 1937
Court Packing Plan (1937)
  • Main Issue- FDR wanted to be able to appoint an additional member to the Supreme Court for every sitting member over 70 years of age.
  • Overall Significance- Roosevelt tried to do this to counter the impact of the Court’s decisions on the New Deal reforms.
  • Future Significance- Although the Judiciary Reorganization Bill in FDR’s word didn’t pass, he did appoint eight justices in his 12 years in office.

national labor relations board v jones and laughlin 1937
National Labor Relations Board v. Jones and Laughlin (1937)
  • Main Issue- There were 3 main issues. Can Congress regulate activity related to manufacturing that significantly affects interstate commerce? Can Congress regulate relations between labor and management under the commerce power? What activity can be regulated by Congress pursuant to the commerce power?
  • Overall Significance- Congress can regulate interstate commerce and can also regulate the relations between labor and management. Congress can also regulate any activity that has a significant effect on interstate commerce whether direct or indirect.
  • Future Significance- The decision was reversed because McReynolds stated that interstate commerce shouldn’t be limited.

farm security administration 1937
Farm Security Administration (1937)
  • The FSA and its predecessor the Resettlement Administration were created to assist poor farmers affected by the Dust Bowl and the Great Depression. It is well know for its documentary of photographs from the time period.

business recession begins 1937 39
Business recession begins (1937-39)
  • The Roosevelt administration attempted to balance the federal budget by cutting relief employment benefits, limited credit, and reduced the money supply. These actions weakened the economy that was already questionable and went into a severe recession for nine months that dropped industrial output by almost one third.

afl expels cio unions congress of industrial organization formed 1938
AFL expels CIO unions – Congress of Industrial Organization formed (1938)
  • Fed up with the refusal of the American Federation of Labor to organize unskilled and semiskilled factory workers, Union Presidents provided the money and organizational framework for their mobilization and unionization. The committee formalized its break with the AFL when it held its first convention in 1938, renaming itself the Congress of Industrial Organizations.

fair labor standards act 1938
Fair Labor Standards Act (1938)
  • Main Issue- To create limits on how much people can work in one week and how much money they are required to make per hour.
  • Overall Significance- The act limited who could work and created a minimum wage for all of the workers. Almost 700,000 workers were affected for the better by the Act by working less hours and making more money. Children were also protected from the dangerous machines and could get an education
  • Future Significance- Basic ideas of this act still are around today such as minimum wage which has increased significantly since 1938.

pure food drug and cosmetic act 1938
Pure Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (1938)
  • Main Issue- Give consumers protection from possible dangerous or impure foods. It required labeling that discloses the nature of the contents of the package when the buyer cannot see the product or judge its composition and value.
  • Overall Significance- Set legally enforced food standards to protect the people consuming it.
  • Future Significance- Some companies would false label their products, not meaning that they were altered, but the label didn’t represent the food how it actually was made. Large penalties for violations include seizures of the goods, $500,000 fine, and/or 10 years in prison.

second agricultural adjustment act 1938
Second Agricultural Adjustment Act (1938)
  • Main Issue- Based on the original AAA act that paid farmers not to grow crops, produce dairy, or raise pigs and lambs. However, unlike the original, the money wouldn’t come from a higher tax from the companies needing the materials for their goods but from general taxation.
  • Overall Significance- The Act was passed to protect the farmers who were in danger from the dust bowl and the plain bad economy.
  • Future Significance- The farmers made more money and were able to begin to grow crops and get them sold to get the process going again.

10 4 million americans unemployed 1938
10.4 million Americans unemployed (1938)
  • The unemployment had increased from the year before. Two policies are blamed for contracting the economy in this time period, labor cost increases and a contractionary monetary policy. This led to a 19.1% unemployment rate.

marian anderson s concert at the lincoln memorial 1939
Marian Anderson’s concert at the Lincoln Memorial (1939)
  • African American Marian Anderson performed an Easter concert on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial that was nationally broadcasted. Through the support of the NAACP, she was an image of the hardworking African American wanting equal rights.

burke wadsworth act conscription 1940
Burke-Wadsworth Act (conscription) (1940)
  • Main Issue- Creation of a military draft without being in a war.
  • Overall Significance- Allowed for a draft for the military to occur without being in wartime. Even though people thought it was just like the works of the First World War, it was still passed to gain power for the upcoming Second World War.
  • Future Significance- The Selective Training and Service Act was created to help the people being drafted into the military.

smith act 1940
Smith Act (1940)
  • Main Issue- Made it an offense to advocate or belong to a group advocating the overthrow of the government.
  • Overall Significance- Conspirers of the government could be fined or imprisoned, or both, and couldn’t hold a government job for 5 years following the conviction. This made the government not as risky for the higher officials because they wouldn’t have people going against their ideas.
  • Future Significance- The supreme court limited the act to only specific instances of insurrectionary activities.

walk on washington movement 1941
Walk on Washington Movement (1941)
  • Movement organized by A. Phillip Randolph and Bayard Rustin
  • The movements goals were to pressure the government to give African Americans equal rights in the work place and to desegregate the military
  • Despite its name, the March on Washington Movement did not lead to an actual march on Washington, as Randolph's requests were met before one could be organized.

fair employment practices committee 1941
Fair Employment Practices Committee (1941)
  • required companies with government contracts not to discriminate on the basis of race or religion
  • Intended to help minorities to obtain jobs in the homefront industry
  • President Roosevelt established it stating "there shall be no discrimination in the employment of workers in defense industries or government because of race, creed, color, or national origin."
  • Roosevelt was influenced by A. Phillip Randolph to establish the committee

national war labor board 1942
National War Labor Board (1942)
  • Its goal was to prevent wartime labor stoppages
  • The NWLB was set up to arbitrate labor disputes that arose during the war.
  • The NWLB managed wage controls over the airplane, automobile, shipping, mining, telegraph, and railway industries during the war.

internment of japanese americans 1942
Internment of Japanese Americans (1942)
  • Approximately 110,000 Japanese Americans living on the Pacific were relocated to internment camps after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor
  • FDR ordered it with Executive Order 9066, on February 19, 1942
  • 62% of people interned were U.S. citizens

war production board 1942
War Production Board (1942)
  • Established on January 16, 1942 with an executive order
  • Its purpose was to regulate the production and allocation of materials and fuel during WWII
  • Extended peacetime industries to meet the need of the war
  • Established priorities in the distribution of materials and services, and prohibited nonessential production. It rationed such things as gasoline, heating oil, metals, rubber, paperand plastics

manhattan project 1942
Manhattan Project (1942)
  • Project to develop atomic weapons, made from plutonium and uranium
  • Employed over 130,000 people and cost $2billion
  • Collaboration with the U.S. UK and Canada
  • successfully made three bombs, one was used as a test bomb and the other two were eventually dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki

rationing 1942
Rationing (1942)
  • Goods like sugar, coffee, butter, meat, cheese, and gasoline were rationalized
  • Introduced to make sure everyone got a fair share of goods that were in short supply due to the war

irving berlin writes white christmas 1942
Irving Berlin Writes “White Christmas” (1942)

The sun is shiningThe grass is greenThe orange and palm trees swayI've never seen such a dayIn Beverly Hills, L.A.But it's December the twenty-fourthAnd I am longing to be up northI'm dreaming of a white ChristmasJust like the ones I used to knowWhere the treetops glistenAnd children listenTo hear sleigh bells in the snowI'm dreaming of white ChristmasWith every Christmas card I writeMay your days be merry and brightAnd may all your Christmases be white

war labor disputes smith connally act 1943
War Labor Disputes/Smith-Connally Act (1943)
  • The Act allowed the federal government to seize and operate industries threatened by or under strikes that would interfere with war production, and prohibited unions from making contributions in federal elections.
  • Passed June 25, 1943 over FDR’s veto

race riots of 1943
Race Riots of 1943
  • Riots accrued in Detroit, Harlem, and 45 other cities. The riots were between whites and blacks
  • It started on June 20,1943 in Detroit, lasted until June 22, with 34 dead, 433 wounded, and property damage valued at $2million
  • Riots started in Harlem on August 1, when a white police officer shot a black soldier

korematsu v u s 1944
Korematsu v. U.S. (1944)
  • Supreme Court case on the constitutionality of keeping Japanese Americans in internment camps
  • The court ruled 6-3 with the government stating that the need of protection against espionage was more important than Fred Korematsu’s individual rights

serviceman s readjustment act g i bill 1944
Serviceman’s readjustment Act/G.I. Bill (1944)
  • Helped provide soldiers returning from the war with a college education. It also provided one year of unemployment compensation.
  • It also provided many different types of loans for returning veterans to buy homes, start businesses, and farms.

roosevelt s death 1945
Roosevelt's Death (1945)
  • President Franklin D. Roosevelt Died April 12, 1945 due to a massive cerebral hemorrhage and other health complications
significant events
Significant Events
  • Germany Invades Poland, World War Two begins
  • Pearl Harbor
  • U.S. enters World War Two
  • D-Day
  • New Deal
  • The Tydings-McDuffie Act, guaranteeing Philippine independence
  • Irving Berlin writes White Christmas
  • Internment of Japanese along the Pacific coast
  • The United Service Organizations (USO) is formed
  • Establishment of the Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD)