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“Seeing is Knowing” The i mpact of technology on visualization techniques used in cartography. Presenter: Jolanta Soltis Class: CIS 679 Professor: Merry Turoff.

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seeing is knowing the i mpact of technology on visualization techniques used in cartography

“Seeing is Knowing”The impact of technology on visualization techniques used in cartography

Presenter: Jolanta Soltis

Class: CIS 679

Professor: Merry Turoff

slide2
“The nature of maps and of their use in science and society is in the midst of remarkable change ­ change that is stimulated by a combination of new scientific and societal needs for geo-referenced information and rapidly evolving technologies that can provide that information in innovative ways. A key issue at the heart of this change is the concept of ‘visualization.’”

MacEachren (2002)

outline
OUTLINE
  • Introduction to visualization
  • Introduction to scientific visualization
  • The past
  • Technological advancement in visualization techniques
  • The role of visualization in cartography in today’s world
  • Examples
  • The evolution of GIS and Visualization
  • Challenges
  • The future
introduction to visualization5
Introduction to visualization
  • Visualization allows scientists to:
    • understand the meaning of millions of pieces of information in a visual form
    • interpret the meaning of this information
  • Through the use of multi-dimensional, animated depictions of data, it is possible to extrude previously unvisible information
what is visualization
What is Visualization?
  • Is visualization an activity carried out by human beings?
  • Is visualization an activity carried out by computer?
  • Visualize:
    • “To form a mental image or vision of …”
    • “To imagine or remember as if actually seeing.”
the purpose of data visualization
The purpose of data visualization
  • To convey information to people quicker
  • Visualization is a term with many meanings(MacEachern, 1995).
    • "Visualization" may mean two things.
      • Use graphical element to display results
      • Use 2 or 3dimensional graphics to diaplay data.
  • More possibilities
    • Interaction
    • zooming
visual variables
Visual Variables
  • Position
  • Size
  • Value
  • Color
  • Texture
  • Orientation
  • Shape…
static visual variables
Static visual variables
  • Size (used to show changes in value
  • Value
  • Texture/Grain and Color – used as a accent or change in perspective
  • Orientation
  • Form
dynamic visual variables
Dynamic visual variables
  • Moment
  • Duration (unit of time a frame is displayed)
  • Frequency (numbers of time forms are displayed)
  • Order (time sequence)
  • Rate of change
  • Synchronization (correspondence of series)
slide12

Computer

Display

Person

Interaction

Feedback

Collaboration

what is scientific visualization
What is scientific visualization?

"Visualization, is the process of transforming raw data into a displayable image.”

Visvalingam (1994 )

To visualize is “to form a mental image or vision of…”

Spence (2001)

scientific visualization serves two purposes
Scientific visualization serves two purposes:
  • Help scientists and engineers solve problems.
  • Explain and promote a particular science to a wide audience.
visualization solutions
Visualization solutions
  • Mental model – visualization – global translation
    • Invisible could be seen
    • Error detection
    • Interactivity and engaging different audiences
    • Immersion
a little history
A little history…
  • Development of motion - about 100 years
  • Mobile sculpture – 20 years
  • Video art – 20 years
  • Animated maps – begin in the 1930’s, but were not developed until 1959
  • Computer animated maps: 1990’s
maps from the past
Maps from the past

The oldest known map:Konya town,6200 BC

Anaximader’s Map of the World

napoleon s 1812 march to moscow
Napoleon's 1812 March to Moscow

Multi-dimensional map shows size of the army, location, direction of movement, time and temperature.

dynamic maps
Dynamic maps…
  • In 1959 Thrower mention the of audio-visual communication possibilities.
  • Walter Tobler developed first animation by using 3-D computer generated map
technological advancement in visualization techniques26
Technological advancement in visualization techniques
  • Impact of computer
  • Increased processing power
  • Internet
  • High quality graphics
  • VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language)
  • Animation
views from an electronic multimedia atlas
Views from an electronic multimedia atlas

Examples from Microsoft’s Encarta 2000

the role of visualization in cartography
The role of visualization in cartography
  • Communication
  • Exploration
  • Processing
communication
Communication
  • Cartographic visualization relies on the use of maps to communicate cartographic ideas.
exploration
Exploration
  • Our dominate sense - sight allows us to explore data sets.
    • Use of cognitive process of the mind
g i s
GIS
  • Geographic Information System (GIS) is a combination of operation and tools for exploring and geospatial analysis of data.
  • It is used to build maps in real time

Multicast Backbone Internet traffic using 3D globe to represent data.

geovisualiztion
Geovisualiztion
  • Representation of geospatial information
  • Integration of computational and visual methods
  • Effective interface designs for geovisualization tools
  • Usability of geovisualization
levels of gis and visualization
Levels of GIS and Visualization
  • Rudimentary: minimal data sharing
  • Operational: consistency
  • Functional: transparent communication
  • Merged: one environment
automatic derivation of electronic maps from x3d vrml worlds
Automatic Derivation of Electronic Maps from X3D/VRML Worlds

Use of web-base tools like:

    • VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language)
    • High-end systems:
      • Mmersive workbenches, CAVEs, Power Walls
  • 3D “worlds”
    • Advantages: creating virtual “supper environments”
factors that contribute to the virtuality of the supper environments
Factors that contribute to the virtuality of the “supper environments”
  • Immersion (sensation of being in)
  • Interactivity (virtual experience)
  • Information intensity (details)
  • Intelligence (realism)
challenges
Challenges
  • How to show a mass of data
  • How to show multiple information
  • Exploration of data
  • Cumbersome productions of animation
  • Data registration
  • Development of virtual environment that could lead to immersion on a geographic scale
  • Balancing abstraction and realism
  • Intelligence of objects
  • Collaboration
the future
The future
  • Internet
  • VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language) and GeoVRM:
  • Animation
  • Personalized maps

Geovisualization is use to solve traffic problems

Example of GeoVRML visualization

references
References
  • Spencer, R. Information Visualization. , (2001),New York, NY: ACM Press Books
  • Visvalingam M, (1995), “Visualization in GIS, cartography and ViSC”, Visualization in Geographical Information Systems, Chapt 3, p18