Song-ming Neo-Confucianism 宋明理学 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  1. Song-ming Neo-Confucianism宋明理学 温海明 中国人民大学哲学院副教授 Prof. Haiming Wen, School of Philosophy, Renmin University of China

  2. Han Yu and Li Ao Han Yu and Li Ao Han Yu: ‘Tao, no the Tao of the Buddhist and Taoist’ Li Ao: transmitted by scholars who did not understand them Origins of Neo-Confucianism Confucianism Buddhism and Taoism: through Ch’ainism Taoist religion Prof. Haiming Wen, School of Philosophy, Renmin University of China

  3. Shao Yung [1011-77] The sixty-four hexagrams, times of the year Yang: heat Yin: cold The solid Yang line moves up to the top until it reaches it. Then the broken Yin lines moves up Prof. Haiming Wen, School of Philosophy, Renmin University of China

  4. Chang Tsai [1020-77] Ch’i: gas or ether Makes up all things The supreme ultimate is Ch’i Ch’i: wonder air Rising , floating: Yang Sinking, falling: Yin No non being. Only Ch’I state of dispersion Not a complete vacuum Serve Ch’ien and K’un (heaven and earth) as ones parents Prof. Haiming Wen, School of Philosophy, Renmin University of China

  5. Cheng Hao Ch’eng Hao: oneness with all things is the main virtue of jen (humanheartedness) Righteousness, property, wisdom , faith Keep in mind that one is orignily one with all things “Never help to grow” More of a metaphysical interpretation then Mencius Jen: takes heave and earth as one Inner connection between all things Prof. Haiming Wen, School of Philosophy, Renmin University of China

  6. Zhu Xi and His Context Zhu Xi 1130-1200 Division of the Song Dynasty Very prolific, wrote the Recorded Sayings Cheng-Zhu school, or Li school Influential book was Commentary

  7. Li Li is the basic essence of an object Object is the concrete manifestation of li “As soon as a thing exists, the Li is inherent in it” Everything has its own li Li is eternal, invention of ships and carts was simply our discovery of those things’ li

  8. Tai Ji – the Supreme Ultimate Just as there is a li of individual things, there is a li for the totality and wholeness of everything The li is the qi of something, its ultimate standard (Platonic ideal) Tai Ji is the universe’s ultimate standard It unites the li of heaven, earth, and all things Tai Ji resides in all things

  9. Qi Qi is the material manifestation of things Everything has both chi and li Li is simply a vast, empty void Qi brings things into existence and helps produce them in physical reality Neither one is prior to the other Neither is the “first mover”

  10. Nature and Mind Human nature is the li of humanity inherent in all of us The Li for all people is the same, the Qi makes us different Some of us have clear chi, others have bad chi This is Zhu Xi’s theory of the origin of evil Nature is abstract, mind is active, produces things Four constant virtues pertain to Li, belong to nature, four beginnings are mind operations

  11. There is a li of statehood and governance If followed, states prosper, if not followed, disorder happens It is always there, even if not appreciated All successful statesmen followed li either consciously or unconsciously

  12. Spiritual Cultivation “Extension of knowledge through investigation of things” and “attentiveness of the mind” These are the ways the Supreme Ultimate can be made clear within us Investigate things and the li behind them will become apparent Sudden Enlightenment will come after study

  13. Lu Jiu-yuan Lu-Wang School, or Mind School, started by Cheng Hao and finished by Lu Jiu-yuan and Wang Shou-ren Lu’s story of enlightenment Lu says “mind is Li” not “nature is Li” Nature and mind are not different Reality consists of one world: Mind

  14. Wang Shou-ren and the Universe Wang Shou-ren (1472-1528) achieved enlightenment suddenly and a new understanding of the Great Learning He reinterpreted it and systematized the Mind school’s teachings The world only has what we experience, no abstract world of li Mind is li and li only exists as long as the mind exists

  15. The Three Cords The Three Cords Illustrious virtue is the heavenly nature within all of us, sometimes obscured Loving people is the function of recognizing heaven, earth, everything’s unity Resting in the highest good is exercising intuitive knowledge and attaining the natural mean

  16. Intuitive Knowledge Intuitive knowledge is basic and natural What we instinctively know to be “right” and “wrong” Don’t add anything to it to obscure it Then you lose the highest good Story of the thief in the house Every man is potentially a sage

  17. Rectification of Affairs Cultivation of self is putting intuitive knowledge into daily practice Rectification of affairs Yi and wu Great Learning is reduced to one idea: extension of intuitive knowledge

  18. Mind Attentiveness, Buddhism “Establishing the most important” First recognize we all possess the universal, original mind One with the universe Criticism of Buddhism: they believe the world is empty When in reality, it is filled with li Buddhists really do have attachment of phenomena

  19. Prof. Haiming Wen, School of Philosophy, Renmin University of China