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Neo-Confucianism. Tuesday: Neo-Confucianism and Jinhua Thursday: Transforming the State from Below? Transforming Society from Above?. The Confucian Perspective. On Politics On Society On Culture On the Economy. Early Imperial Confucianism.
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Neo-Confucianism Tuesday: Neo-Confucianism and Jinhua Thursday: Transforming the State from Below? Transforming Society from Above?
The Confucian Perspective • On Politics • On Society • On Culture • On the Economy
Early Imperial Confucianism • Figures: Confucius and his followers (Mencius, Xunzi, etc.) • Texts: the Five Classics • Justifications for Empire and Imperial Rule • heaven-and-earth • antiquity • Political Values: Ritual and Music versus Institutions and Punishments • Outside-in and top-down
The “Neo-Confucians” • The Northern Song questions and Neo-Confucian answers • The Southern Song • Zhu Xi 朱熹 and Lü Zuqian呂祖謙 • Reflections on Things at Hand (Jin si lu近思錄) • The Four Books四書 • Great Learning大學 • Doctrine of the Mean中庸 • Analects of Confucius論語 • Mencius孟子
What Made Neo-Confucianism Different? • Philosophy • The concept of li理 (principle, coherence) and qi 氣 (energy-matter, material force) • Ritual is li 理 • The Way is li理 • Human nature is li 理
Wang Yangming 1472-1529 • mind is principle” 心即理 • turning to qing 情 emotional response/feeling
Neo-Confucianism: • As a position • As an identity • As a social movement
Neo-Confucianism as a totalizing ideology • The political – zhengshi 政事 • The sociomoral – dexing 德行 • The cultural – wenxue 文學
The Audience for Neo-Confucianism • Local Society • Literati communities in local society • The literati problem • Neo-Confucianism as philosophy for local literati elites?
The “True Unity of the Way” 道統 in Jinhua • Lü Zuqian 呂 祖 謙 1131-1187 • He Ji 何 基 1188-1268 • Wang Bo 王 柏 1197-1274 • Jin Lüxiang 金 履 祥 1232-1303 • Xu Qian 許 謙 1270-1337 • Zhang Mou 章 懋 1437-1522
Transforming the State from Below? Transforming Society from Above? • The grounds for values in Neo-Confucianism • The existence of principle/coherence (li理) in the self (=human nature) • Learning as the means to cultivate awareness of principle/coherence in oneself • The superiority and authority of those who do • Action as the means to realize what one has learned
Neo-Confucianism and Literati “volunteerism” in Jinhua (aka “righteous” 義 activities) • Private academies • Relief granaries • Equitable labor service • Community compacts • Neo-Confucian shrines • Local tax reform • Local defense militias
The synthesis The Ming Dynasty1368-1644 the Hongwu Reign Period 1368-1398 Ming Taizu (Zhu Yuanzhang)
Early Ming Social Policy • Village/Community tithing system (li jia里甲) system • One village/community (li) = 110 households • Composed of 10 groups of ten (jia), led by the 10 wealthiest households in the community
The Elders (老人) system, • Several elders in each rural community • juridical powers • Right to report on conduct of county officials and staff to higher authority • Right to bypass county officials and appeal to higher authority
The community school (社學) system • Each village to have a community school for the moral education of males
The Tax Captain (量長) system • The wealthiest households in an area with tax of ten thousand bushelsof grain are responsible for transporting the grain to its destination.
Moral Education • Pavilions for Exhibiting the Bad and the Good • The Community Altars • The Grand Injunctions • The Placard of Instructions to the People • Community Wine Drinking Ceremony
Legislated leadership versus volunteerism • The cycle: • State imposed systems • Local voluntary leadership
The Emergent Sociopolitical Order of Later Imperial China • Local literati elite communities • Education and examinations • Neo-Confucianism • Statecraft • Lineage formation • Creating local history