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Confucianism January 30, 2006 Layers of Chinese Religion Buddhism Confucianism Taoism Nameless religion Ancestor worship Divination (astrology, I Ching ) (from c. 100 C.E.) “Hundred Schools” during Warring States Period (c. 500-221 B.C.E) Early Kings (by 1500 B.C.E.)

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confucianism

Confucianism

January 30, 2006

layers of chinese religion
Layers of Chinese Religion
  • Buddhism
  • Confucianism
  • Taoism
  • Nameless religion
    • Ancestor worship
    • Divination (astrology, I Ching)

(from c. 100 C.E.)

“Hundred Schools” during

Warring States Period

(c. 500-221 B.C.E)

Early Kings

(by 1500 B.C.E.)

shang dynasty religion c 1700 1045 bce
Shang Dynasty Religion(c.1700-1045 BCE)
  • Oracle Bones: Divination
    • Consultation with Shang ancestors
  • Bronzes: Worship of ancestors
    • Keep Di and Ancestor Spirits, happy
  • No creation myth
    • Instead, sage kings
    • Yao & Shun
    • Moralization of political events
the zhou take power from the shang c 1045 bce
The Zhou Take Power from the Shang (c. 1045 BCE)
  • Zhou, under Shang, felt themselves more deserving of rule
  • King Wu and the Battle at Anyang
    • “Duke of Zhou” is Wu’s uncle
  • Establish doctrine of “mandate of heaven”
    • Moral and religious justification of the king/state
    • Heaven (tian) withdraws the mandate from the unjust
    • Supports strong, continuing historical/divination/ritual traditions
spring autumn c 800 480 and warring states c 480 221 periods
Spring & Autumn (c. 800-480) and Warring States (c. 480-221) Periods
  • Fragmentation and Chaos
    • Local Strongmen call themselves “king”
    • Set up separate centers for divination and ritual
    • Increase in shi (“sure”), elite specialists in history/divination/administration
    • Eventually they form a new professional class of independent specialists—political “consultants”
  • Suggests Loss of Mandate
    • Shi try to answer the basic problem: What went wrong, and what can be done?
    • Lots of answers: “The Hundred Schools of Thought”
the hundred schools of thought
The Hundred Schools of Thought
  • Linguistic & Cosmological speculation
  • Sunzi, on the Conduct of War
  • Mozi, on Universal Love & Defensive War
  • Legalists, on Absolute Rule
    • Based on this, the Qin win
  • Confucianism
  • Taoism
confucius c 550 480 b c e
Confucius (c. 550-480 B.C.E)
  • From Lu, home of the Duke of Zhou (p. 175, 7.5)
  • Early life: Travels, offers services as shi (p. 177, 1.1)
  • Later life: Returns home and teaches (p. 175, 7.7)
confucius response to the decline of the chou
Confucius’ Response to the Decline of the Chou
  • Government is rectification—making right. (p. 187, 12.17)
  • You can’t rectify if you aren’t good (p. 187, 13.6) and don’t support the good (p. 187, 2.19)
  • Decisions and rituals of state should issue from the highest authority (p. 182, 16.2)
ritual propriety filiality benevolence
Ritual, Propriety, Filiality, Benevolence
  • Nobody else knows or cares about ritual & propriety (p. 182, 3.15, 17, & 18)
  • Confucius was punctilious (p. 176, 10.2, 4, 8)
  • Propriety and music are higher level skills—but humaneness and filiality come first (p. 181, 3.3)
  • Filiality/respect is a cultivated skill, a practiced attitude (p. 180-181, 2.6-7)
  • Respect is the source of benevolence (p. 177, 1.2)
the five relationships hierarchy and reciprocity
The Five Relationships:Hierarchy and Reciprocity
  • Father and son
  • Older brother and younger brother
  • Husband and wife
  • Friend and friend
  • Ruler and subject