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Communication. Verbal communication. Oral communication Written communication Non verbal communication Body language : Kinesics Language of Space and Distance : Proxemics. Language of visual signs . egs . Charts, Tables, Road signs etc.

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verbal communication
Verbal communication
  • Oral communication
  • Written communication

Non verbal communication

  • Body language: Kinesics
  • Language of Space and Distance: Proxemics

Language of visual signs. egs. Charts, Tables, Road signs etc.

  • Language of sound signals.egs. Bell, siren, alarm
  • Language of audio-visual signals.egs. Sniff, puff, snort
  • Non-vocal features: study of duration, nasalization, loudness and stress
actions speak louder than words
Actions Speak Louder than Words

‘What often happens in any relationship is that

language itself becomes a mask and a means of

clouding and confusing the relationship. If the

spoken language is stripped away and the only

communication left is body language, the truth

will find some way of poling through. Spoken

language itself is a great obscurer”

  • Body Language, Julius Fast, MJF books, 1970
body language
Body Language
  • The use of body parts is to convey inner feelings, intentions or to convey message.
  • It acts as an effective means of communication of the personality traits
  • Use BL that can be interpreted correctly by the people-
  • Use BL that suit the situation
  • Use BL to reinforce your oral communication
body language is the study of
Body language is the study of
  • Physical appearance
  • Postures
  • Facial expressions
  • Eye gestures/contacts
  • Gestures with hands and feet
  • Kinesics &Culture
physical appearance
Physical appearance
  • Dress reflects ones personality.
  • A visual means of creating impression on the people
  • It includes
    • clothing, ornaments, accessories, logos and footwear.
    • Grooming the hair, beard and moustache
    • Make up with powders, creams and perfumes

Dress as body language ( formal situations-fitting the occasion- job interview; meetings;)

  • Dressing up as per the status( designation , position, gender, dress code stipulated by the organization)
  • Dressing up as per the occasion ( colourful during wedding & sober & gloomy during condolence meeting)
  • Dress & fashion ( prevailing fashion should boost & not erode the personality image, status, and social élan of a person)

Economic affordability (‘Cut your cloth according to the cloth’- not expensive but well tailored, clean, ironed, befitting& appropriate)

  • Integrative dressing up ( height, weight & complexion ; matching & complimenting one another)

Different forms of dressing

National dress

Ceremonial dress

Formal dress

Informal dress



Lounge suit


Party wear

Morning & evening wear

Casual wear

Working class

  • Stand / sit straight
  • Chin upright
  • Legs moving freely from waist
      • confident & never be dissuaded
      • appears dynamic
      • can have control over the crowd

Walking up and down suggests anger & perplexity

  • A tensed body in a ‘military-set up ‘ suggests submission to ‘authority’
  • Relaxed body suggests control of the other
  • Postures of female body are assumed to communicate

shades of beauty and grace

facial expression
Facial expression
  • Face is the index of the mind
  • Innumerable feelings
  • Transparent expressions of
    • Thought & Genuine feelings
    • Deliberate suppression of them
some times facial expressions are pretentious
‘ Some times facial expressions are pretentious
  • Facial expression can
    • Move to sympathy
    • Deceive by manipulation

“One can smile and smile and

be a villain”


facial language
Facial language


  • Pursed lips
  • Fixed gaze
  • Contracted eye brows


  • Parted lips
  • Lowered eyes
  • Expanded eyebrows


  • Dilated eyes
  • Expanded eyebrows
  • Loosely parted lips


  • Contracted eyelids
  • Closed lips
  • Engaging eyeballs


  • Elevated upper lip
  • Bared teeth
  • Expansive displacement of muscles around mouth
  • Smiling eyes

Disgust /hatred

  • Serious face
  • Stiffened muscles
  • Fixed gaze
eye contact
Eye contact
  • Eye is the window of the soul
  • Eye contact is a must
  • Firm looks can control/ manipulate /direct
  • Fixed gaze suggest involvement or wonder/disapproval
  • Raised looks show dominance
  • Downcast looks suggest weakness/ submission
  • Direct eye contact conveys honesty, transparency, neutral attitude (for interviews)
  • Movement of limbs
  • A wave of the hand-beckon/reject/good buy/refusal
  • Raised/lowered thumb/index finger
  • closed fist
  • Looking straight
  • A handshake
  • Moving of the head


  • Running fingers through hair, biting fingernails,
  • Wringing hands, adjusting tie (nervous),
  • Touching nose or face, clasping hands behind head
  • Rubbing back of your neck (untrustworthy or defensive).
kinesics culture
Kinesics &Culture
  • Gestures are culture based
  • A wave of hand mean
    • Formal greeting as hello or bye
    • Informal greetings accompanied with smile and a ‘hi’
  • Hand Folded mean greetings accompanied with terms namaste/vanakkam
  • Looking straight confidence &transparency in west
  • Immodest in Arabia
  • Moving head side ways is disapproval in India but approval in west

Looking straight in the eye

- for westerners

a mark of refinement; communicates honesty , transparency and neutral attitude

- needed for one during interview

- For eastern people (Arabians)

avoiding eye contact and looking else where is a mark

of modesty especially for women


Hand shake

Signifies ones personality and intention

  • Limp response suggests inferiority and lack of confidence

Moving of head side ways

    • Disaproval for eastern people
    • Acceptance for western people
  • The study of touch and interpretations is called haptics

western people do not like being touched above fore arms

Arabs greet and express intimacy, embracing with warmth


Time and space are culture specific.

  • Promptness and punctuality at meetings etc. are most essential for business transaction with westerners
  • People in east prefer relaxed time


The study of the use of space to communicate meaning is called as proxemics

Standing far away expresses disregard for westerners while it is a mark of respect in east


Practice using appropriate body language

Activity 1

  • A Excuse me. Can you take a picture of me ?
  • B Yeah, sure.
  • A Just press that button.
  • B Er, which one ?
  • A The one on the top.
  • B OK, right. Er.... can you move back a bit.
  • A Is this OK?
  • B Fine, now smile. That’s it. Very nice.
  • A Thanks.
  • B Not at all. You’ve got a lovely smile. Er... fancy a drink ?
  • A OK, but I’ve got no money on me.
  • B That’s OK. I’ll pay.

Activity 2

  • A: Have you seen my book? I can’t remember where I put it. B: Which one? A: The murder mystery. The one you borrowed. B: Is this it? A: No. It’s the one you borrowed. B. I did not! A: Maybe it’s under the chair. Can you look? B: OK--just give me a minute. A: How long are you going to be? B: Geez, why so impatient? I hate when you get bossy. A: Forget it. I’ll find it myself. B: Wait—I found it! 

Mime a meeting of two people from different countries clearly bringing out the embarrassment caused by gestures



Boss- (with wrinkled forehead, baring all the teeth)

What the hell do you mean when you come ten minutes late? You have kept us all waiting! Are you the boss or am I?

Secretary-Sorry, Sir, For having kept you waiting. But you sent me a few minutes ago to fetch these application forms. I had to search a while before getting all of them. I had to walk down from that block three building away. Really sorry to have delayed the interview.


Boss: (with legs crossed and feet tapping the floor) Well it’s OK . Who is John?

  • Candidate: (Standing up 15 feet away) Yes, Sir I am here.
  • Boss: Come and stand here.