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10 The Nature of Work Groups and Teams. Learning Objectives. Describe the different types of work groups and the difference between a group and a team Appreciate the characteristics of work groups and their effects on the behavior of group members

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learning objectives
Learning Objectives
  • Describe the different types of work groups and the difference between a group and a team
  • Appreciate the characteristics of work groups and their effects on the behavior of group members
  • Describe how groups control their members through roles, rules, and norms
learning objectives1
Learning Objectives
  • Appreciate the need for conformity and deviance in groups and why and how group goals need to be aligned with organizational goals
  • Understand the socialization process and how socialization tactics can result in an institutionalized or an individualized role orientation
teams fuel global innovation
Teams Fuel Global Innovation
  • How can teams fuel innovation?
  • Use of cross-functional teams at Whirlpool
    • Engineers
    • Graphic artists
    • Usability researchers
    • Human factor experts
    • Marketers
    • Industrial designers
when is a group a group
When Is a Group a Group?

Interactivity

Mutual Goal

types of work groups
Types of Work Groups

Formal Work Groups

Command

Groups

Task

Forces

Teams

Self-

Managed

Work Teams

types of work groups1
Types of Work Groups

Informal Work Groups

Friendship

Groups

Interest

Groups

exhibit 10 2 five stage model of group development
Exhibit 10.2 Five-Stage Model of Group Development

Forming

Storming

Norming

Performing

Adjourning

work group characteristics
Work Group Characteristics

Group Status

Group

Size

Work Group

Characteristics

Group

Function

Group

Composition

Social

Facilitation

Group

Efficacy

how large should a group be
Benefits of Small Groups

Regular interaction

Ease of sharing information

Recognition of individual contributions to group

Strong group identification

Higher group satisfaction

Benefits of Large Groups

More resources

Division of labor

Specialization of tasks

How Large Should a Group Be?
group composition advantages
Homogeneous groups

Collegiality amongst group members

Information sharing

Low levels of conflict

Few coordination problems

Heterogeneous groups

Diversity of views represented

High performance

Variety of resources

Group Composition Advantages
group function
Group Function

Group function is the work that a group contributes to the accomplishment of organizational goals; it provides a sense of meaning and purpose.

group status
Group Status

Group status is the implicitly agreed upon, perceived importance of what a group does in an organization

The more important the task performed by a work group, the higher the group’s status in the organization

Members with high status are likely to be motivated to perform at a high level

group efficacy
Group Efficacy

Group efficacy is the shared belief group members have about the ability of the group to achieve its goals and objectives

Efficacy emerges over time and influences the aspirations of the members

factors contributing to group effectiveness
Factors Contributing to Group Effectiveness
  • Group composition
  • Ability to work well together
  • Coordination of efforts
  • Resources
  • Shared information
  • Development of effective strategies
social facilitation
Social Facilitation

Social Facilitation Effects

Audience Effects

Co-Action Effects

exhibit 10 5 social facilitation
Exhibit 10.5 Social Facilitation

Social Facilitation

Presence of other

group members

enhances

performance

of repetitive tasks

Presence of other

group members

impairs

performance

of difficult tasks

advantages of rules
Advantages of Rules
  • Ensure that members perform desired behaviors
  • Facilitate control of behavior
  • Facilitate evaluation of individual performance
  • Provide information for newcomers
why do group members conform to norms
Why Do Group Members Conform to Norms?

Compliance

Identification

Internalization

group response to deviants
Group Response to Deviants
  • Attempt to change deviant
  • Expel deviant
  • Change norm
socialization and role orientation
Socialization and Role Orientation

Role Orientation

Institutionalized

Individualized

exhibit 10 7 socialization tactics
Tactics Leading to an Institutionalized Orientation

Collective tactics

Formal tactics

Sequential tactics

Fixed tactics

Serial tactics

Divestiture tactics

Tactics Leading to an Individualized Orientation

Individual tactics

Informal tactics

Random tactics

Variable tactics

Disjunctive tactics

Investiture tactics

Exhibit 10.7 Socialization Tactics