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11 Effective Work Groups and Teams. Learning Objectives. Describe the sources of process losses and gains and understand how they affect group or team potential performance Understand how social loafing can occur in groups and the steps that can be taken to prevent it

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learning objectives
Learning Objectives
  • Describe the sources of process losses and gains and understand how they affect group or team potential performance
  • Understand how social loafing can occur in groups and the steps that can be taken to prevent it
  • Differentiate among three forms of task interdependence and discuss the team performance implications associated with them
learning objectives3
Learning Objectives
  • Understand the ways in which a group’s cohesiveness affects its performance and explain which level of cohesiveness results in the highest team performance
  • Describe the nature of four important kinds of groups in organizations and how and why they help an organization achieve its goals
group performance
Group Performance
  • What’s hurting group performance?
  • Microsoft’s team approach was effective
  • Performance evaluation emphasizing individual performance hindered team effectiveness
potential performance
Potential Performance

Potential performance is the highest level of group performance possible; it reflects the work group’s capabilities

the rolling stones
The Rolling Stones
  • Initially functioned well as a group
  • Suffered in the 1970s as group members emphasized individual rewards
  • In the 1980s group refined approach
causes of social loafing
Causes of Social Loafing
  • Lack of connection between inputs and outcomes
  • Perception that individual efforts are unnecessary or unimportant
  • Large group size
reducing social loafing
Reducing Social Loafing
  • Make individual contributions identifiable
  • Make individuals feel that they are making valuable contributions to a group
  • Remind employees why they were initially chosen for the team
  • Keep the group as small as possible
task interdependence
Task Interdependence

Task interdependence is the extent to which the work performed by one member affects what other group members do

As task interdependence increases, the degree and intensity of the interactions among group members who are required to perform the tasks also increases

types of task interdependence
Types of Task Interdependence

Pooled Task Interdependence

Sequential Task Interdependence

Reciprocal Task Interdependence

group cohesiveness



Group Cohesiveness

Group cohesiveness is the attractiveness of a group to its members

when cohesiveness is low
When Cohesiveness Is Low
  • Members are not motivated to participate in the group
  • Members do not effectively communicate
  • Group has difficulty influencing member behavior
  • Group fails to meet goals
when cohesiveness is excessive
When Cohesiveness Is Excessive
  • Time is wasted by members socializing on the job
  • Conformity is stressed at the expense of needed change
  • Group goal accomplishment becomes more important than cooperation with other groups to achieve the organization’s goals
when cohesiveness is moderate
When Cohesiveness Is Moderate
  • There is an appropriate level of communication and participation among members
  • The ability to influence members’ behavior to ensure conformity while still allowing for some deviation
  • The capacity to stress the importance of the group’s accomplishments but not at the expense of other groups and the organization
signs of cohesiveness
Signs of Cohesiveness
  • Low cohesiveness: Information flows slowly; group has little influence; group tends not to achieve its goals
  • Moderate cohesiveness: Group members work well together; there is good communication and participation; group is able to influence its members’ behavior; group tends to achieve its goals
  • Very high cohesiveness: Group members socialize excessively; high level of conformity; group achieves its goals at expense of other groups
Exhibit 11.4 Consequences of High Cohesiveness When Group Goals Are Aligned with Organizational Goals
Exhibit 11.5 Disadvantages of High Cohesiveness When Group Goals Are Not Aligned with Organizational Goals
important organizational groups
Important Organizational Groups
  • Top Management Team
  • Self-Managed Work Teams
  • Research and Development Teams
  • Virtual Teams
effectiveness in self managed teams
Effectiveness in Self-Managed Teams
  • Team is truly self-managing
  • Work is complex
  • Work results in finished end product
  • Managers are supportive of teams
  • Members are carefully selected
  • Members want to be part of the team