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Chapter 3. The Diversity of Life. Guiding Questions. What are fossils? How do scientists arrange organisms in natural groups? What is the most fundamental taxonomic division of life? What kinds of organisms constitute the Protista and Fungi? . Fossils.

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chapter 3

Chapter 3

The Diversity of Life

guiding questions
Guiding Questions
  • What are fossils?
  • How do scientists arrange organisms in natural groups?
  • What is the most fundamental taxonomic division of life?
  • What kinds of organisms constitute the Protista and Fungi?
fossils
Fossils
  • Tangible remains or signs of ancient organisms
  • Found mostly in sedimentary rocks (why?) or sediments, especially marine sediments
  • Thousands to millions of years old

Nautilus

fossils4
Fossils
  • Most fossils are hard parts of organism
    • Teeth, skeleton
    • Earthworm setae
    • Insect mandibles
    • Crinoid (left)- ‘sea lily’ that is actually an animal with a CaCO3 skeleton.
fossils5
Fossils
  • Hard parts may be completely replaced by minerals
  • This crinoid’s CaCO3 skeleton has been completely replaced by pyrite (fool’s gold).
fossils6
Fossils
  • Fossilization of soft parts is rare
    • Requires oxygen-poor environment
    • Burial in fine-grained sediment
  • Permineralization
    • Infilling of woody tissue by inorganic materials
    • Petrified wood
fossils8
Fossils
  • Fossil need not be skeletal
  • Mold
    • 3-D negative imprint

Brachiopod fossils (left):

S = shell

M = mold

fossils9
Fossils
  • Impressions
    • 2-D preservation of outlines and surface features
  • Carbonization (left)
    • Concentrated residue of remaining carbon
fossils10
Fossils
  • Trace fossils
    • Tracks/trackways
    • Trails
    • Burrows
  • Provides behavioral information about extinct animals (how?)
fossils11
Fossils
  • Fossils provide biased view of biota
    • Not all organisms are preserved (over-/under-represented)
      • Rare organisms
      • Lacking hard parts
    • Not all skeletal material is preserved
      • Scavengers
      • Transport and abrasion
      • Post-burial alteration of rock
    • Not all fossils are exposed at the surface
    • Some are destroyed by plate tectonics, metamorphism, etc.
the current hotspot
The Current Hotspot

American/Mongolian team excavating an ankylosaur fossil in the Gobi Desert in Mongolia.

buy fossils now
Buy Fossils Now!
  • eBay http://www.ebay.com
  • http://www.arizonaskiesmeteorites.com/Dinosaur_Fossils_For_Sale/
human genealogy

Human Genealogy

(Who else is hanging around in your family tree?)

taxonomic scheme
Taxonomic Scheme
  • Kingdom
  • Phylum
  • Class
  • Order
  • Family
  • Genus
  • Species
taxonomic scheme18
Taxonomic Scheme
  • Karl
  • Plays
  • Cards
  • Only
  • For
  • Green
  • Stamps
taxonomic scheme19
Taxonomic Scheme
  • Kids
  • Prefer
  • Candy
  • Over
  • Fat
  • Gooey
  • Snails
taxonomic scheme20
Taxonomic Scheme
  • Kingdom - Animal
  • Phyum - Chordate
  • Sub-phylum - Vertebrate
  • Class - Mammal
  • Order - Primate
  • Family - Hominid
  • Genus - Homo
  • Species - Homo sapiens
more mnemonics
Animalia

Chordata

Vertebrata

Mammalia

Primata

Hominid

Homo

Homo sapiens

Ana

Caught

Vince

Making

Piping

Hot

Ham

Sandwiches

More Mnemonics
slide22
A

chocolate

valentine

may

produce

hot and

heavy

sweethearts

Animalia

Chordata

Vertebrata

Mammalia

Primata

Hominid

Homo

Homo sapiens

slide23
A

crystal

vase

might

possibly

hold

hybrid

sunflowers

Animalia

Chordata

Vertebrata

Mammalia

Primata

Hominid

Homo

Homo sapiens

slide24
Amy

cutout

valentines for

Ma,

Pa,

her

husband and

sister

Animalia

Chordata

Vertebrata

Mammalia

Primata

Hominid

Homo

Homo sapiens

primates
Primates

Prosimian

Baboon

other hominids

Other Hominids?

Bigfoot

Sasquatch

Jersey Devil

Abominable Snowman

other hominids32

Other Hominids?

Neanderthal

Homo habilis

Homo erectus

taxonomic groups
Taxonomic Groups
  • Six kingdoms
    • Prokaryotes
      • Archaeobacteria
      • Eubacteria
    • Eukaryotes
      • Plantae-producers
      • Fungi-consumers
      • Animalia-consumers
      • Protista
taxonomic groups34
Taxonomic Groups
  • Taxonomy
    • Study of composition and relationship of the taxonomic groups
  • Taxonomic groups
    • The six kingdoms and their subordinate groups
    • Taxon/taxa
taxonomic groups35
Taxonomic Groups
  • Linnaean taxa range from broad (phylum) to narrow (species)
    • Phylum-one of the major categories of organisms
    • Species
      • Group of individuals that can interbreed
      • Name includes genus
      • Italicized or underlines
  • Class Mammalia
    • Order primates
taxonomic groups36
Taxonomic Groups
  • Phylogeny
    • “tree of life”
    • structure formed by branches of species
  • Cluster into groups with similar traits, equivalent to taxa
    • Genus (genera)
      • small clusters
taxonomic groups37
Taxonomic Groups
  • Clade
    • Cluster of species that share a common ancestry and have homologous structures
    • All species within each clade must be traceable to a common ancestor; must be monophyletic
  • Cladistics
  • Homologous-structures derived from the same “blueprint” of common ancestry.
taxonomic groups38
Taxonomic Groups
  • Primitive traits
    • appear early in evolutionary history; relatively unchanged
    • hagfish group traits
  • Derived traits
    • evolved later; often much changed from ancestral forms
    • present only in some subgroups
    • jaws, lungs, claws or nails, feather, fur, and mammary glands
taxonomic groups39
Taxonomic Groups
  • Horse ancestry
    • Detailed phylogeny due to abundant fossil record
  • Three clades
    • Subfamilies
  • All members of the modern horse family belong to Equus and originated in North America
prokaryotes
Prokaryotes
  • Bacteria (bacterium), as a group, gain nutrition in a variety of ways
    • photosynthetic
    • chemosynthetic
    • consumers
  • As a group, at least 3 billion years old
prokaryotes41
Prokaryotes
  • Archaeobacteria
    • Can tolerate extreme conditions-extremophiles
      • very high temperatures
        • hot springs
      • low or no oxygen
      • acidic conditions
prokaryotes42
Prokaryotes
  • Eubacteria
    • divided by structure of cell walls
    • Cyanobacteria
      • photosynthetic
        • spherical or filamentous
      • can form mats or scum
protista
Protista
  • Many single celled organisms
  • Some simple multicellular organisms
  • Includes Algae
    • “seaweeds”

Amoeba

protista44
Protista
  • Protozoans
    • Animal-like protists
      • Amoebas
        • change shape; no rigid form
      • Flagellates
        • flagellum for locomotion
      • Ciliates
        • cilia for locomotion
protista45
Protista
  • Unicellular algae
    • plant-like protists
      • Dinoflagellates
      • Diatoms
      • Calcareous nannoplankton
  • Originated in the Mesozoic Era
    • among the most important marine producers
protista46
Protista
  • Dinoflagellates
    • two flagella for locomotion
      • drift
    • dormancy
      • armor in a cyst
      • often fossilized as cysts
protista47
Protista
  • Diatoms
    • Two-part skeleton of opal (SiO2)
      • Halves fit together
    • Freshwater and marine
      • Most planktonic
      • Some benthic
    • Accumulations can produce diatomaceous earth and chert
protista48
Protista
  • Calcareous Nannoplankton
    • Small spherical cells
    • Armored
      • overlapping plates of calcium carbonate
    • Mostly marine plankton
  • Accumulations can produce chalk
protista49
Protista
  • Multi-cellular algae
    • Much drifts
    • Some attaches to seafloor
  • Some red and green algae secrete calcium carbonate skeletons
    • limestone
protista50
Protista
  • Protozoans with skeletons
    • Foraminifera
      • Chambered skeleton of calcium carbonate
      • Very abundant
      • Useful for dating rocks and sediments
protista51
Protista
  • Protozoa with skeletons
  • Radiolarians
    • Skeleton made out of opal (SiO2)
    • Related to foraminifera
fungi
Fungi
  • Decomposers
    • Obtain nutrients from dead organisms
  • Diverse
    • Yeast
    • Mushroom
  • Poor fossil record
plants
Plants
  • Differ from multicellular green algae
    • Internal fertilization of egg
    • Tissue
  • Vascular
    • Vessels for transport of water, dissolved nutrients, food
  • Non-vascular
    • Transportation of materials by diffusion
      • moss
plants54
Plants
  • Seedless Vascular Plants
    • Evolved first
    • Psilotum
      • Simplest vascular plant
      • No leaves or roots
      • Similar to earliest fossil forms
plants55
Plants
  • Ferns
    • Roots and leaves
    • Alternation of generations
      • Spore-producing then sperm-producing generation
    • Spores
      • One set of chromosomes
      • Fertilized by sperm
      • Requires moisture
    • Vast Late Paleozoic swamps led to coal formation
plants56
Plants
  • Gymnosperms
    • “Naked seed” plants
    • Conifers
      • Cone-bearing plants
      • Eggs are fertilized in cone by pollen
        • Pollen bears sperm; carried by wind
      • Dominant in the Mesozoic
  • Angiosperms
    • Flowering plants
      • Pollen carried by pollinators (animals)
animals
Animals
  • Two groups
    • Vertebrates
      • Possess a backbone
    • Invertebrates
  • Coelom
    • Body cavity housing internal organs
  • Protostomes
    • First opening becomes the mouth
  • Deuterostomes
    • First opening becomes the anus
animals58
Animals
  • Sponges
    • Simple invertebrates
    • Suspension feeds
      • Strain particles from water
      • Mostly eat bacteria
      • Flagella pump water through internal canals
    • Calcium carbonate or silica spicules support structure
  • Cambrian - modern
cnidarians
Cnidarians
  • Jellyfish and corals
  • Radial symmetry
  • Inner and outer body layer
    • Jelly-like layer in between
  • Use tentacles to catch prey
    • Stinging cells
  • Sexual and asexual reproduction
protostome invertebrate
Protostome Invertebrate
  • Segmented worms
    • Fluid-filled coelom
      • Primitive skeleton
    • Each segment has own coelomic cavity
      • Expand, contract for movement
arthropods
Arthropods
  • Insects, crabs, spiders, lobsters, trilobites
  • Trilobite
    • Three-lobed body
      • Central, left-and right- lobed
    • External skeleton
    • Gill-like structure for respiration
    • Legs
    • Primitive eyes
  • Common in Cambrian
arthropods62
Arthropods
  • Crustaceans
    • Head of five fused segments
    • Thorax and abdomen
    • Weakly calcified exoskeleton
  • Insects
    • Head, thorax, abdomen
    • Two pairs of wings
    • Poor fossil record
    • Precede angiosperms
arthropods63
Arthropods
  • Onychophorans
    • Intermediate between segmented worms and arthropods
    • Early forms
      • Marine
      • Nearly to base of Paleozoic
    • Modern forms
      • terrestrial
mollusks
Mollusks
  • Clams, snails, octopuses
    • Shell of aragonite, calcite, or both
    • Mantle
      • Fleshy, sheetlike organ
      • Secretes shell
    • Radula
      • File-like structure for food
    • Base of Cambrian
  • Monoplacophorans
    • Primitive mollusks
mollusks65
Mollusks
  • Gastropods
    • Snails
    • Marine and freshwater
    • Terrestrial
      • Lung
    • Most grazers
      • Some suspension feeders
    • Beginning of Paleozoic
mollusks66
Mollusks
  • Cephalopods
    • Squids, octopuses, chambered nautiluses
    • Swim in the sea
      • Jet propulsion
      • Eyes
    • Carnivores
      • Catch with tentacles
      • Eat with strong beak
  • Chambered nautilus
    • Buoyancy due to gas in shell
  • Common in Phanerozoic
mollusks67
Mollusks
  • Clams, mussels, oysters, scallops
    • Shell divided into two valves
    • No head or radula
    • Muscles pull shell together
    • Suspension feeders mostly
lophophores
Lophophores
  • Brachiopods
    • Shell divided into two valves
    • Lampshells
    • Lophophores
      • Pump water
      • Strain food
    • Inarticular brachiopods
      • Lack hinge teeth
      • Lingula
    • Articulate brachiopods
bryozoans
Bryozoans
  • Moss animals
  • Colonial
  • Closely related to brachiopods
    • Lophophore extended from skeleton to feed
    • Calcified skeleton
  • Ordovician
echinoderms
Echinoderms
  • Spiny-skinned form
  • Five-fold symmetry
    • Starfishes
      • Predators
      • Lower Paleozoic
    • Sea urchins
      • Regular sea urchins
        • Radially symmetrical bodies
      • Irregular sea urchins
        • Bilaterally symmetric
        • Burrowers
echinoderms71
Echinoderms
  • Crinoids
    • Sea lilies
    • Sieve food using arms
      • Pass food to mouth with tube feet
    • May swim
    • May be attached by flexible stalk
    • Disk-shaped plates from stalk
chordates72
Chordates
  • Notochord
    • Flexible, rodlike structure
      • Runs length of body
      • Supports body
        • For some part of lifecycle
    • Spinal cord
      • Runs next to notochord
  • Primitive Chordate
    • Lancet
      • Notochord is skeleton
      • Can swim
      • Usually rests
vertebrates
Vertebrates
  • Notochord develops into vertebral column
    • Usually bony
    • Cartilage in sharks
conodonts
Conodonts
  • “Cone-teeth”
    • Originally thought to be teeth of a marine animal
  • Later determined to be eel-like fish and a vertebrate
vertebrates75
Vertebrates
  • Fishes
    • Ray-finned fishes
      • Fins supported by thin bones radiating from body
    • Lobe-finned fishes
      • Evolved into amphibians
      • Coelacanth
        • Discovered in 1939
  • Amphibians
    • First to live on land as adults
    • Metamorphosis
vertebrates76
Vertebrates
  • Reptiles
    • Eggs with protective shells
    • Ectothermic
      • Environment controls internal body temperature
  • Dinosaurs
  • Birds
    • Endothermic
vertebrates77
Vertebrates
  • Mammals
    • Endothermic; Hair
    • Bear live young
    • Montreme
      • Lay eggs
    • Marsupial
      • Offspring develop in pouch
    • Placental
  • Therapsids
    • Ancestral mammals
    • Arose in Mesozoic