Urban Spatial Structure and Racial Inequality: Causes, Contours, Consequences, and Cures Paul Ong UCLA SPA & AAS
Relevant Personal Background Disciplinary Orientation: Institutional Economics Approach: Applied and policy research – empirical quantitative analyses with solid theoretical foundation Normative Position: Eliminating Racial Injustices Current Status of Research: Synthesis of numerous narrow studies
Key Definitions Urban Spatial Structure: The locations of people, economic and social activities, infrastructure, and physical networks. Racial Inequality: Systematic differences along racial lines in economic opportunity and outcomes produced by societal structures and dynamics
Conceptual Model Racism Spatial Consequences Activities Racial/Economic Segregation, Spatial/Transportation mismatch, under development, school inequality, environmental injustices Residential, Investment, Markets, Public Goods & Services, Infrastructure, etc. Other Causal Factors: class, ethnicity, nativity, social capital, etc.
Outline of TalkLos Angeles Centric • Racial Segregation • Poor Neighborhoods • Spatial/Transportation Mismatch & Jobs • Other Examples – Education, Environment, Museums, Foreclosures • Interventions
Race and Welfare Paul Ong and Evelyn Blumenberg, “Job Accessibility and Welfare Usage: Evidence from Los Angeles,” March 1997
Spatial/Transportation Mismatch • Spatial Mismatch –Separation of residential and employment spaces • Transportation Mismatch – Ability to over come spatial mismatch • Disentangling the two.
Spatial Mismatch Source: E. Blumenberg
Spatial-Transportation Mismatch Poverty Rate <10% 10%-19% 20%-39% 40%+
Application to Education, Environment, and Museums • Education – Residential and school segregation • Environment – Risk and the transportation network • Museums – Access and site choices
Education Segregation Paul Ong and Jordan Rickles, “The Continued Nexus between School and Residential Segregation,” 2004
Education Alternatives Jordan Rickles, Paul Ong, and Doug Houston, “The Integrating (and Segregating) Effect of Charter, Magnet, and Traditional Elementary Schools: The Case of Five California Metropolitan Areas,” October 2002
Art Usage Map Douglas Houston, Sofya Bagdasaryan, and Paul Ong, “Arts and Cultural Institutions in Los Angeles: Patterns of Utilization”
Possible Points of Intervention Anti-Discrimination Affirmative Action Change Housing Patterns Spatial Racism Change Investment Patterns Improve Network Racial Inequality: employment, capital , education, environmental, public goods, Non-spatial Racism Other Causal Factors: class, ethnicity, social capital, etc.
Policy and Programmatic Interventions • Moving to Opportunity • Economic Development Zones • Eliminating Automobile Bias • Improved transit • School Bussing and Alternative Schools • Outreach Visitation Programs • Human-Environmental Land-use Restrictions
Intervention Issues • Spatial versus non-Spatial, eg. job training versus transportation • Trade offs – Integration versus Community Development • Sectoral versus multi-sectoral – Environment, transportation and jobs • Race-oriented versus Race-neutral – Policies in the Post-209 era • Pragmatic versus visionary