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Data Display. Scientific Research Methods in Geography Chapter 10 Feb 9, 2010. Data Display…. … is a Graphical Technique for communication and analysis that depicts data patterns rather than literally describing them.

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data display

Data Display

Scientific Research Methods in Geography

Chapter 10

Feb 9, 2010

data display1
Data Display…
  • … is a Graphical Technique for communication and analysis that depicts data patterns rather than literally describing them.
  • … allows relevant properties of phenomena to be highlighted and clarified.
  • … is used by scientists for several purposes including:
      • Initial data examination
      • Interpret the meaning of data
      • Communicate data and meaning to others.
guidelines for designing displays
Guidelines for Designing Displays
  • Guiding principles for the design and use of data displays boil down to one underlying idea: Effective Communication.
  • Effective Communication means - Communicating a great deal of truthful and relevant information in a manner that is:
      • Clear
      • Accurate
      • Unambiguous
      • Efficient
      • Aesthetically Pleasing
tables
Tables
  • Organized lists, arrays, or matrices of data.
  • Show data values directly with numbers.
  • Only minimal use of spatiality.
  • Tables Depict Data in Two Ways:
    • Distribution Tables
        • Show Frequency
          • Relative frequency, cumulative frequency
        • Contingency tables
    • Descriptive Index Tables
        • Shows tendency, variability, relationship
tables continued
Tables continued
  • Metric-level data in tables
      • Grouped into classes or intervals to efficiently communicate the pattern of the data.
      • “Class Intervals”
      • How many classes are appropriate:
          • At least 3 or 4 and probably no more than 10
          • Specific to the data set and what is intended to be communicated
graphs
Graphs
  • Pictorial representations of data.
  • The use of spatial properties such as:
        • Location
        • Size
        • Distance
        • Direction
  • 3 Dictums to follow from table 10.1:
        • Label Clearly and Sufficiently
        • Avoid Uninformative and Content-Free Graphic Marks
        • Fill the Graph Space with Data Marks
slide9
Maps
  • In this context… maps are graphical displays that depict earth-referenced features and data.
  • “Take at least one Cartography Course”
  • Reference Maps:
        • Depict actual earth surface features as accurately as possible
        • Locations are encoded with a coordinate system
  • Thematic Maps
        • Special purpose displays
        • Hybrid “map-graph” that uses geographic space as a base
slide10

Maps always distort the earth’s surface and features.

  • Generalizations need to be made when creating a map. Not all levels of detail can be depicted on a map.
  • Symbology and Color schema are important to consider.
  • Sometimes Distortions are part of the communication.

(http://www.math.yorku.ca/SCS/Gallery/images/cartogram/statecartredblue.png)

(http://blogs.sas.com/jmp/uploads/choropleth1.png)

new trends in scientific visualization
New Trends in Scientific Visualization
  • Information Visualization is key to exploratory data analysis, especially with large spatially and temporally distributed data sets.
  • Buzzwords:
          • Geo-visualization
          • Spatialization
          • Animations
          • Augmented Reality / Virtual Reality
          • Multisensory display technologies: sonificationtactilizations
  • Bottom Line: No matter how “gee whiz” the visualization technique is, it needs to meet the requirements of effectively communicating data.
class exercise
Class Exercise
  • Think of a Data Display example that you have created or viewed that is particularly effective. What made it effective?
  • Can you reproduce it on the white board?