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Organic Chemistry. Organic vs. Inorganic. View the organic molecules and compare them to the inorganic molecules. What qualifies them as “organic”?. Organic. Inorganic CO 2 H 2 O NH 3 H 3 PO 4 NaCl AgNO 3 HCl. Intro to Orgo.

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organic vs inorganic
Organic vs. Inorganic
  • View the organic molecules and compare them to the inorganic molecules. What qualifies them as “organic”?
  • Organic
  • Inorganic
    • CO2
    • H2O
    • NH3
    • H3PO4
    • NaCl
    • AgNO3
    • HCl
intro to orgo
Intro to Orgo
  • Organic Chem – the study of C based compounds (must have both C & H)
  • Why Carbon?
    • Its versatile!
    • 4 valence electrons (4 covalent bonds)
    • Form simple or complex compounds
    • C chains form backbone of most biological molecules (straight, bent, double bond, rings)
hydrocarbons
Hydrocarbons
  • Hydrocarbons – consist of ONLY

C & H

  • Importance - Store Energy
  • Hydrophobic
isomers
Isomers
  • Isomers – have the same # atoms of ea/element but differ in arrangement
  • Ex. C5H12
  • Different structure means different function adding to the versatility of organic compounds
functional groups
Functional Groups
  • Functional groups replace H in the hydrocarbon to create a different organic molecule with unique properties
  • Most functional groups are hydrophilic
  • Variation of life is due to molecular variation
  • You must know the following common functional groups: hydroxyl, carbonyl, carboxyl, amino, sulfhydryl, phosphate
macromolecules
Macromolecules
  • 4 classes:
    • Carbohydrates
    • Lipids
    • Proteins
    • Nucleic Acids
  • Polymers – long molecule made of building blocks called monomers
    • Ex. Carbs, Proteins, Nucleic acids
polymerization
Polymerization
  • Building dimers or polymers
    • Condensation rxn AKA dehydration synthesis:

Monomer-OH + monomer-H  dimer + H2O

  • Breaking down dimers or polymers
    • Reverse rxn called hydrolysis

Dimer + H2O monomer-OH + monomer-H

carbohydrates
Carbohydrates
  • Cells get most of their energy from carbs
  • Carbs are sugars, most end in “-ose”
  • Multiple of molecular formula: CH2O
  • Carbonyl group
  • Multiple hydroxyl groups
  • Monosaccharides
    • Monomers: simple sugars w/ 3-7 carbons
    • Ex. (C6H12O6): Glucose, Fructose, Galactose
carbohydrates cont d
Carbohydrates (cont’d)
  • Disaccharide – formed by 2 monosaccharides forming a glycosidic linkage by dehydration synthesis
  • Ex.

glucose + glucose  maltose + H2O

glucose + fructose  sucrose + H2O

glucose + galactose  lactose + H2O

carbohydrates cont d1
Carbohydrates (cont’d)
  • Polysaccharides: 100’s – 1,000’s of monosaccharides joined by glycosidic linkages
  • Storage polysaccharides:
    • Starch AKA Amylose
      • monomer-glucose (helical)
      • Plants store starch in plastids, and hydrolyze when needed
    • Glycogen
      • Monomer – glucose (branched)
      • Vertebrates temporarily store glycogen in liver & muscle
  • Structural polysaccharides:
    • Cellulose – plant cell walls
      • Monomer – glucose (linear)
    • Chitin
      • Arthropod exoskeletons
      • Fungi cell walls
cracker activity
Cracker Activity:
  • Take a bite of the cracker and let it dissolve on your tongue… think about how the taste of the cracker changes. Repeat.
  • Draw a flow chart that shows what is happening to the cracker (chemically)
    • as you digest it
    • where and how it is stored
    • how it is converted to be used by your muscles after school (at practice)
lipids
Lipids
  • Hydrophobic – consist of mostly hydrocarbons
  • Store energy efficiently (2x more than carbs!)
  • Types:
    • Fats & oils
    • Phospholipids
    • Steroids
    • Waxes
fats oils
Fats & Oils
  • Fat is assembled by dehydration synthesis of:
    • glycerol C3H5(OH)3
    • fatty acid:16 or 18 C hydrocarbon chain w/carboxyl group
  • Glycerol + 3 F.A. chains  triglyceride + 3H2O
  • Function:
    • store energy
    • Insulate
    • Protective cushion around organs
saturated fats
Saturated Fats
  • Contain no C double bonds, straight
  • Have as many H’s as possible
  • Solid at room temperature
  • Most animal fat
  • Ex. Butter, lard, adipose
unsaturated fats oils
Unsaturated Fats (Oils)
  • One or more C double bond, bent or kinked
  • Liquid at room temperature
  • Most plants and fish fat
  • Ex. Olive oil, cod liver oil, corn oil
phospholipids
Phospholipids
  • Glycerol + 2 F.A. + phosphate
  • Phosphate head – hydrophilic
  • F.A. tails - hydrophobic
  • In water, phospholipids form a bilayer
  • Phospholipid bilayer is major component of cell membrane
steroids
Steroids
  • 4 fused carbon rings w/various functional groups
  • Ex. Cholesterol – component of cell membrane, and many hormones
proteins
Proteins
  • Various functions: enzymes, structural support, storage, transport, cellular communication, movement, defense
  • Monomer – amino acid
    • Short C chain
    • Amino group
    • Carboxylic acid group
    • “R” group determines a.a.
  • Cells use 20 different a.a. to build thousands of different proteins
  • a.a. link by peptide bonds via dehydration synthesis to form polymers – polypeptides
  • Chaperonins assist in protein folding
structure of proteins
Structure of Proteins
  • 10 Structure

- Sequence of a.a. (length vary)

- Determined by genes

  • 20 Structure
    • How polypeptide folds or coils
    • α Helix
    • β pleats
  • 30 Structure - 3D (fold onto itself)
    • H bonds
    • Hydrophobic interaction
    • Disulfide bridges
  • 40 Structure – bonds to other polypeptides
    • 2 or more polypeptide chains bonded together
protein conformation
Protein Conformation
  • Structure of a protein is directly related to its function
  • Protein conformation is determined when it is synthesized, and maintained by chemical interactions
  • Protein conformation also depends on environmental factors: pH, salt concentration, temp…etc
  • Protein can be denatured – unravel and lose conformation, therefore biologically inactive… when conditions change again, protein can be renatured (restored to normal)
nucleic acids
Nucleic Acids
  • 2 types:
    • DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
      • Found in nucleus of eukarya
      • Double stranded helix
      • Provides directions for its own replication
      • Also directs RNA synthesis
      • Through RNA controls 10 structure of proteins
    • RNA (ribonucleic acid)
      • Single stranded, variety of shapes
      • Transfers information from nucleus to cytoplasm (where proteins are made)

DNA RNA Proteins

structure of nucleic acids
Structure of Nucleic Acids
  • Monomers – nucleotides composed of 3 parts:
    • Pentose (ribose or deoxyribose)
    • Phosphate group
    • Nitrogenous base
      • Pyrimidines – 6 membered rings of C & N
        • Cytosine (C)
        • Thymine (T)….DNA only
        • Uracil (U)… RNA only
      • Purines – 6 membered ring fused to 5 membered ring of C & N
        • Adenine (A)
        • Guanine (G)
another molecule of biological importance atp
Another molecule of biological importance:ATP
  • Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) – primary energy transferring molecule in the cell
  • ATP ↔ ADP + Pi + Energy