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Organic Chemistry. Organic vs. Inorganic. View the organic molecules and compare them to the inorganic molecules. What qualifies them as “organic”?. Organic. Inorganic CO 2 H 2 O NH 3 H 3 PO 4 NaCl AgNO 3 HCl. Intro to Orgo.

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Organic Chemistry


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    1. Organic Chemistry

    2. Organic vs. Inorganic • View the organic molecules and compare them to the inorganic molecules. What qualifies them as “organic”? • Organic • Inorganic • CO2 • H2O • NH3 • H3PO4 • NaCl • AgNO3 • HCl

    3. Intro to Orgo • Organic Chem – the study of C based compounds (must have both C & H) • Why Carbon? • Its versatile! • 4 valence electrons (4 covalent bonds) • Form simple or complex compounds • C chains form backbone of most biological molecules (straight, bent, double bond, rings)

    4. Hydrocarbons • Hydrocarbons – consist of ONLY C & H • Importance - Store Energy • Hydrophobic

    5. Isomers • Isomers – have the same # atoms of ea/element but differ in arrangement • Ex. C5H12 • Different structure means different function adding to the versatility of organic compounds

    6. Functional Groups • Functional groups replace H in the hydrocarbon to create a different organic molecule with unique properties • Most functional groups are hydrophilic • Variation of life is due to molecular variation • You must know the following common functional groups: hydroxyl, carbonyl, carboxyl, amino, sulfhydryl, phosphate

    7. Important Functional Groups of Organic Compounds

    8. Macromolecules • 4 classes: • Carbohydrates • Lipids • Proteins • Nucleic Acids • Polymers – long molecule made of building blocks called monomers • Ex. Carbs, Proteins, Nucleic acids

    9. Polymerization • Building dimers or polymers • Condensation rxn AKA dehydration synthesis: Monomer-OH + monomer-H  dimer + H2O • Breaking down dimers or polymers • Reverse rxn called hydrolysis Dimer + H2O monomer-OH + monomer-H

    10. Carbohydrates • Cells get most of their energy from carbs • Carbs are sugars, most end in “-ose” • Multiple of molecular formula: CH2O • Carbonyl group • Multiple hydroxyl groups • Monosaccharides • Monomers: simple sugars w/ 3-7 carbons • Ex. (C6H12O6): Glucose, Fructose, Galactose

    11. Carbohydrates (cont’d) • Disaccharide – formed by 2 monosaccharides forming a glycosidic linkage by dehydration synthesis • Ex. glucose + glucose  maltose + H2O glucose + fructose  sucrose + H2O glucose + galactose  lactose + H2O

    12. Carbohydrates (cont’d) • Polysaccharides: 100’s – 1,000’s of monosaccharides joined by glycosidic linkages • Storage polysaccharides: • Starch AKA Amylose • monomer-glucose (helical) • Plants store starch in plastids, and hydrolyze when needed • Glycogen • Monomer – glucose (branched) • Vertebrates temporarily store glycogen in liver & muscle • Structural polysaccharides: • Cellulose – plant cell walls • Monomer – glucose (linear) • Chitin • Arthropod exoskeletons • Fungi cell walls

    13. Cracker Activity: • Take a bite of the cracker and let it dissolve on your tongue… think about how the taste of the cracker changes. Repeat. • Draw a flow chart that shows what is happening to the cracker (chemically) • as you digest it • where and how it is stored • how it is converted to be used by your muscles after school (at practice)

    14. Lipids • Hydrophobic – consist of mostly hydrocarbons • Store energy efficiently (2x more than carbs!) • Types: • Fats & oils • Phospholipids • Steroids • Waxes

    15. Fats & Oils • Fat is assembled by dehydration synthesis of: • glycerol C3H5(OH)3 • fatty acid:16 or 18 C hydrocarbon chain w/carboxyl group • Glycerol + 3 F.A. chains  triglyceride + 3H2O • Function: • store energy • Insulate • Protective cushion around organs

    16. Saturated Fats • Contain no C double bonds, straight • Have as many H’s as possible • Solid at room temperature • Most animal fat • Ex. Butter, lard, adipose

    17. Unsaturated Fats (Oils) • One or more C double bond, bent or kinked • Liquid at room temperature • Most plants and fish fat • Ex. Olive oil, cod liver oil, corn oil

    18. Phospholipids • Glycerol + 2 F.A. + phosphate • Phosphate head – hydrophilic • F.A. tails - hydrophobic • In water, phospholipids form a bilayer • Phospholipid bilayer is major component of cell membrane

    19. Steroids • 4 fused carbon rings w/various functional groups • Ex. Cholesterol – component of cell membrane, and many hormones

    20. Proteins • Various functions: enzymes, structural support, storage, transport, cellular communication, movement, defense • Monomer – amino acid • Short C chain • Amino group • Carboxylic acid group • “R” group determines a.a. • Cells use 20 different a.a. to build thousands of different proteins • a.a. link by peptide bonds via dehydration synthesis to form polymers – polypeptides • Chaperonins assist in protein folding

    21. Structure of Proteins • 10 Structure - Sequence of a.a. (length vary) - Determined by genes • 20 Structure • How polypeptide folds or coils • α Helix • β pleats • 30 Structure - 3D (fold onto itself) • H bonds • Hydrophobic interaction • Disulfide bridges • 40 Structure – bonds to other polypeptides • 2 or more polypeptide chains bonded together

    22. Protein Conformation • Structure of a protein is directly related to its function • Protein conformation is determined when it is synthesized, and maintained by chemical interactions • Protein conformation also depends on environmental factors: pH, salt concentration, temp…etc • Protein can be denatured – unravel and lose conformation, therefore biologically inactive… when conditions change again, protein can be renatured (restored to normal)

    23. Nucleic Acids • 2 types: • DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) • Found in nucleus of eukarya • Double stranded helix • Provides directions for its own replication • Also directs RNA synthesis • Through RNA controls 10 structure of proteins • RNA (ribonucleic acid) • Single stranded, variety of shapes • Transfers information from nucleus to cytoplasm (where proteins are made) DNA RNA Proteins

    24. Structure of Nucleic Acids • Monomers – nucleotides composed of 3 parts: • Pentose (ribose or deoxyribose) • Phosphate group • Nitrogenous base • Pyrimidines – 6 membered rings of C & N • Cytosine (C) • Thymine (T)….DNA only • Uracil (U)… RNA only • Purines – 6 membered ring fused to 5 membered ring of C & N • Adenine (A) • Guanine (G)

    25. Structure of Nucleotides

    26. Bonding of Nucleotides

    27. Another molecule of biological importance:ATP • Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) – primary energy transferring molecule in the cell • ATP ↔ ADP + Pi + Energy