Chapter 9: Developing and Organizing the Presentation Chloe Boyd, Ben Miller, & Ryan Darby
Making Effective Presentations 247 • Whateverthe occupation, speaking to an audience is a fact of life • Michael Scott power point: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yXAIGvw0-14
Making Effective Presentations 247 • Even a spur-of-the-moment report to your employer is a presentation. • As you rise in the ranks, you rely more on presentation skills than technical skills • Rising through the ranks requires “selling” your idea to the next level of management • Delivering information effectively in a presentation improves chances of success
Common Types of Presentational Speaking 248 (Table 9-1) • Briefing and informational announcements • Training programs • Ceremonial occasions • Seeking resources • Project and policy proposals • Civic and social presentations
Analyzing the Situation 249 • Analyzing the Audience • Who are key audience members? • How much do they know? • What do they want to know? • What are their personal preferences? • What demographic characteristics are significant?
What Demographic Characteristics are Significant? 251 • Is the audience primarily women, or multicultural? • How familiar is the audience with American culture or regional culture? • Will they understand cultural references?
Who are Key Audience Members? 250 • Who has the power to reject or approve your goal? • Who can address your concerns most effectively? • Identifying the key decision-makers in the audience is crucial to fulfilling your goals
What Size is the Group? 252 • Keeping the attention of a large group is harder than keeping the attention of a smaller group
What are the Listener’s Attitudes? 253 • Understanding the attitude of your audience can help you craft the message to fit them.
Analyzing Yourself as the Speaker 254 • Your Goal • Your Knowledge of the Topic • Your Feelings About The Topic
Your Goal 254 • Understanding what you want to accomplish and how you need to do it is necessary to completing a goal
Your Knowledge of the Topic 254 • How much do you know about your topic? • Regardless of how much you know, do research beforehand. Your previous information may be out of date or wrong. • Example: British Finance Minister Kenneth Clarke embarrassed himself with incorrect data. He praised a steelworks that had been out of business for 15 years. (pg. 254)
Your Feelings About the Topic 255 • Being excited about a topic can help in presenting it • Lack of enthusiasm on a topic can damage your ability to present the topic. http://www.sltrib.com/sltrib/opinion/56043284-82/health-tax-care-costs.html.csp
Clip on Failed Presentations • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rIABo0d9MVE
Analyzing the Occasion 255 • Facilities • Time • Context • Defining your goal, or what you want to accomplish by giving the presentation.
General and Specific Goals 257 • General goals are goals intended to inform, persuade, or entertain the audience about what you are trying to accomplish. • The purpose of an informative presentation is to expand your listener’s knowledge or teach them a skill. Progress reports or lectures about technology are informative presentation
Persuasive Presentations 257 • Persuasivepresentations focus on trying to change what an audience thinks or does. Pitching an idea is the most obvious, but other examples include: • Persuading a working-class audience to vote for a union • Convincing management to use a different accounting method
Entertaining Audiences 257 • Sometimes a speaker’s goal is to entertain the audience. This presentation is more informal than most, and is intended to help an audience relax and enjoy themselves. • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GqZpe2p2tUg
Specific Goals 257 • The specific goal of your presentation is the achievement you are trying to complete • Can be as simple as signing 5 people up for a service by the end of the presentation • Describe you goal to yourself before the presentation. • It should be as specific as possible and realistic.
Methods for Defining a Thesis Statement 259 (Table 9-2) • Imagine meeting a classmate at an elevator and only having a few seconds to explain an idea before the doors close. • Perhaps you had to send a one- or two- sentence e-mail communicating key points of your ideas. • If listeners hear only a small portion of your remarks, what is the least amount of information you hope they have learned? • If after attending a presentation you gave, what would you want the audience member to be able to convey?
Developing a Thesis 259 • Thesis statement: the central idea or key point of any and all types of communications summarized down into a concise meaningful statement. • Presentations without a clear thesis will leave your audience wondering what you are actually trying to say. This distracts them and leaves them confused. • The thesis is vital to your entire presentation: You will end up saying at least once in the introduction, several times during the body of the presentation, and you will repeat your thesis one more time in your conclusion.
Developing a Thesis 260 • When most speakers start out, they end up confusing the thesis of their presentation with its goal. • Goal statement: a note to yourself outlining what you hope to accomplish • Thesis statement: tells your audience exactly what your main idea is
Organizing the Body 260 • New speakers often make the mistake of starting with the introduction • The body is where to start organizing, though it’s not what comes first. • Organization occurs in two steps: • identifying key points that support your thesis • deciding what organizational plan best develops those points
Brainstorming Ideas 261 • Once you have developed your thesis, it is time to gather research in order to support your presentation. • Create lists and get lots of information. • If you are looking into selling to a specific customer, doing your homework is essential. Find out: • What they currently use or if they are happy with the quality, cost, and availability. • Itheyare familiar with your product and the impression that currently resides with them.
Brainstorming Ideas 261 • Between your brainstorming and research you will have built a list of materials from which you will build your presentation. • Example: Figure 9.2; page 262
Basic Organizational Plan 261 • Now you have a list of ideas, you are ready to organize them in a concise manner, aiding you in your speaking goal. • Clarity is crucial. • Extensive research has shown that the organization of data makes your messages understandable, keeps your audience happy, and provides a boost to your image as a speaker. • Despite the benefits of your efforts in good organization presentations may often suffer from: • Taking too long to get the point. • Including irrelevant material. • Leaving out necessary information. • Getting ideas mixed up.
Basic Organizational Plan 261 • Problems like these usually result in chaos for the speaker. This can happen even to people who are considered to be the “best”, or at least trained speakers. • For example, when former President George W. Bush spoke without his speech prepared for him: • “Because the—all which is on the table begins to address the big cost drivers. For example, how benefits are calculated, for example, is on the table; whether or not the formula that are being considered. And when you couple that, those different cost drivers, affecting those—changing those with personal accounts, the idea is to get what has been promised more likely to be—or closer delivered to what has been promised.”
Basic Organizational Plan263 • Introduction • Attention-getter • Thesis • Preview • Body (two to five main points) • 1. • 2. • 3. • 4. • 5. • Conclusion • Review • Closing statement
Basic Organizational Plan263 • A linear, logical approach isn’t the only way to structure the organization of a presentation. Research has found that it may have more effective results with Euro-American audiences or those that are receptive to a Euro-American culture standard. • Those from other backgrounds may respond to a less linear pattern, such as “star,” “wave” or even “spiral.” • Regardless of the value that tailored patterns may offer in some situations, the standard format will offer the safest approach when presenting to most business audiences that are included in the Euro-American culture. • The use of opening remarks are often unused despite the value of providing an audience with what they intend to speak about.
Basic Organizational Plan263 • Some will simply launch into central ideas of a speech and then suddenly stop speaking without providing a summation or closing. • There are those that seem to perform perfectly, covering all key components, but then continue on with new information long after the audience has stopped listening. • The worst offenders are those who lack any kind of organization at all.
Identify Main Points and Subpoints263 • The list of ideas you gathered should result in far more than the material you require in your presentation. • Your next step is to decide the most effective points of interest in order to support your thesis. Pinpoint your key ideas. • Example: You have pinpointed your key ideas, which are the most likely reasons that most listeners will sign up to use Mercury’s services: • 1. Mercury is more reliable. • 2. Mercury is more convenient. • 3. Mercury is more economical.
Identify Main Points and Subpoints264 • How do you identify your main points? • Use the “one week later” test: • Ask yourself what are the main specific points of information that you want remembered a week after you presentation. • Organization of the body is also important. • Example: Figure 9.4 on page 280 compared to Figure 9.3 on page 264 (shown on next slide)
A Logic Tree illustrates the relationship between the thesis, main points, and subpoints in a presentation 264 (Figure 9-3) It’s the most -It has a 98 percent reliable trouble-free record service. -It received the highest rating from customers Mercury is the best It’s the most last year. service to deliver convenient -Mercury picks up and high-priority packages service. delivers to individual offices, overnight. not just the mailroom. -Mercury picks up and It’s the most delivers throughout economical the day. service. -Mercury’s rates are the lowest overall. -Mercury doesn’t charge for large or oddly shaped packages.
Choose the Best Organizational Pattern 264 - 271 • Chronological • Spatial • Topical • Cause-Effect • Problem-Solving • Criteria Satisfaction • Comparative Advantages • Motivated Sequence
Chronological 264 • The chronological pattern arranges your points according to their sequence in time. This can be used where order fulfillment would be broken down into each phase of a process step by step; its common use is to give instructions. • Thesis: Downloading the software program is easy. • 1. Click Manual Download. • 2. When the File Download box appears, choose a folder location. • 3. Close all applications including your web browser. • 4. Double-click on the saved file icon to start the installation process.
Chronological 265 • Chronological patterns are also useful for discussing events that develop over time. • Thesis: We need to stay on schedule if we’re going to get the catalog out in time for the holidays. • 1. A product list must be ready by March 1. • 2. Photography and catalog copy have to be completed by May 6. • 3. Page proofs have to be read and corrected by July 30. • 4. Final proofs have to be reviewed by department heads by August 30. • 5. Catalogs have to be shipped no later than October 5.
Chronological 265 • Chronological patterns may be used for discussing history: • Thesis: a review of the past five years shows we’ve been moving toward empowering our entire workforce to make decisions. • 1. Five years ago, management introduced the Employee • 2. Four years ago, we started project teams with people from every division. • 3. Two years ago, the company started allowing department supervisors to approve purchases. • 4. Over the past year, the company has made changes in our billing process.
Spatial Patterns 265 • Used for showing how a product is put together or defines its physical location. The organization of spatial presentation may look like this: • Thesis: This home provides all the space you need. • 1. The main floor is spacious, with a large living room, a formal dining room, and an eat-in kitchen. • 2. The second floor has enough bedrooms for every member of the family, including a private study. • 3. The basement has a finished playroom for the children and a utility room. • 4. The yard has large trees and lots of space for a garden.
Spatial Patterns 265 • You can also show the subject’s geographical nature by citing examples from many places. • Thesis: Business is better in some areas than in others. • 1. Northeast regional sales are 50% percent ahead of last year’s. • 2. Mid-Atlantic regional sales are 10 percent ahead of last year’s. • 3. Southern regional sales are about the same as last year’s. • 4. Midwest regional are down about 25 percent from last year’s.
Topical 266 • Topical centered patterns logically group ideas or themes on divisions in the subject. • Example: An accountant might organize a proposal for a new inventory system this way: • Thesis: A just-in-time inventory system has three major benefits. • 1. It eliminates excess inventory that may result from long-term ordering. • 2. It cuts down on waste resulting from supplies becoming outdated or overused. • 3. It saves on storage and computer records costs. • Topical is also known to be called a catchall approach because people can’t think of another pattern that will work. It’s important to note that a genuine Topical approach has elements logically related to a scheme an audience easily recognizes.
Cause-Effect 266 • The cause-effect pattern shows that certain events have happened or will happen as a result of certain of circumstances. • Insurance companies use this for showing how certain clauses give extra coverage if hospitalized or in the case of a new advertising launch and how it will help reach bigger markets. It might also be used to show how certain circumstances are creating a problem. • Thesis: Redecorating the offices before raising salaries [cause] will damage morale and affect productivity [effect]. • 1. When employees see the offices being redecorated without having received a cost- of- living raise over the past year, they’ll be discouraged. • 2. Discouraged employees aren’t as likely to give the company their best efforts during the upcoming season.
Cause-Effect 266 • Alternative to the cause-effect structure is the effect-cause configuration. When using this structure, focus more on results: start with the result and how it was reached. • Thesis: The decline in our profits [effect] is the result of several problems [cause]. • 1. Our profits have decreased 15 points. • 2. Several factors are responsible. • A. Our competitors are offering better service at lower prices. • B. Our maintenance costs have nearly doubled. • C. Our advertising is not effective.
Cause-Effect 266 • As Table 9-3 shows, chronological, spatial, topical, and cause-effect plans are best suited to informative presentations. Presentation Styles and Their Corresponding Organizational Patterns Informative………Persuasive……………… Chronological Problem-Solution SpatialCriteria Satisfaction Topical Comparative Advantages Cause-Effect Motivated Sequence
Problem-Solution 266 • This is the simplest persuasive scheme. As its name suggests, you begin by showing the audience something is wrong with the present situation and then suggest how to remedy it. • This plan is particularly effective; if it isn’t broken don’t fix it. An audience will need to see that there is something to fix. • For Example: • Thesis: Establishing a system of employee incentives can boost productivity. • 1. Our level of productivity has been flat for two years while the industry-wide rate has climbed steadily in that period. [problem] • 2. Establishing a performance based incentive program will give employees a reason to work harder. [Solution]
Problem-Solution 266 • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MSAC_44NOCg
Problem-Solution 266 • A problem-solution pattern may be just as effective by bringing out of date software to light in order to solve problems with inventory monitoring, why a desired potential customer needs a personal financial advisor, or why a lacking department requires additional staff. • Not every situation will benefit by this pattern; for example, what if your audience already is well aware that a problem exists? In a circumstance such as this, one of the following three strategies may be the solution:
Criteria Satisfaction 267 • Organizational strategy sets up criteria the audience will accept and then identifies how the idea or product meets the need. • Introduction: • Being in the right place at the right time can be the key to financial success. I’m here to offer you a chance to reap substantial benefits from an extremely promising project. Like any investment, this project needs to be based on the adequate financing. Let me show you how the project meets all of these important requirements.
Criteria Satisfaction 267 • Body: • 1. The first criterion is that the business plan must be solid. Extensive market research shows the need for this product…. • 2. The second criterion is a talented management team. Let me introduce the key members of this management team and describe their qualifications. • 3. The third criterion is a solid, realistic financial plan. The following plan is very conservative yet show strong potential for a substantial profit…
Criteria Satisfaction 268 • Conclusion: Because it meets the conditions of a solid business plan, this project is worth your serious consideration. • This example has the speaker identify each criterion and immediately shows how he plans to solve it. Another approach is to present all of the points first and then present the proposal. The key here is to gain the listener’s acceptance first and boost your credibility. Once you have achieved the first point, you go on showing precisely how you will do this for them. With this approach, the thesis is deferred----which is especially smart when the audience may not be inclined to accept it without some powerful and well informed arguments. • A manager used a criteria satisfaction plan with a deferred thesis to announce a wage freeze to employees----hardly a popular idea. If she had announced her thesis first (“A wage freeze is in your best interest”), the employees probably would have been too upset to listen thoughtfully to her arguments. By leading her audience through the reasons leading up to the freeze, she most likely would have increased the chances that the employees would understand managements reasoning. Notice how the thesis is first presented in the middle of the body and is restated in the conclusion.
Criteria Satisfaction 268 • Introduction: You know that we’ve faced declining revenues for the past year. During these hard times, we need a policy that is best both for the company and for you, the employees. That’s the only way we will be able to survive. • Body: • 1. There are three important criteria for selecting a policy. [Introduces criteria first] • A. It should be fair. • B. It should cause the least harm to employees. • C. It should allow the company to survive this difficult period without suffering permanent damage. • 2. A wage freeze is the best plan to satisfy these criteria. [satisfaction of criteria] • A. It’s fair. • B. It causes minimal harm to employees. • C. It will enable the company to survive. • Conclusion: A wave freeze is the best plan at this difficult time.