First Aid & Emergencies. Chapter 28. State Standards . 10.2.5 Describe individual rights and responsibilities within the health care system. (page 74) 10.3.4 Apply injury prevention and management strategies for personal, family, and community health. (page 75). Lesson 1.
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10.2.5 Describe individual rights and responsibilities within the health care system.
10.3.4 Apply injury prevention and management strategies for personal, family, and community health.
Providing First Aid
*First Aid- care given to an ill or injured person until professional medical care arrives.
*Universal Precautions- actions to prevent the spread of disease by treating all blood and other body fluids as if they contain pathogens.
Responding to and Emergency:
Types of Injuries:
* Open Wounds:
Drag & Drop
Shock and Choking
*Chain of survival- actions that maximize the victim’s chances of survival.
*Defibrillator- device that delivers an electric shock to the heart to restore its normal rhythm.
*Cardiopulmonary- life-saving first-aid procedure that combines rescue breaths with chest compressions, supplying oxygen until normal body functions resume.
*Shock- failure of the cardiovascular system to keep an adequate supply of blood circulating to the vital organs of the body.
ABCs of Adult CPR
A> Airway- Remove anything blocking the victim’s airway. If there is no head or neck injuries lay the person flat on the ground tilt the head back lifting the chin with one hand while pushing down on the forehead with the other hand.
B> Breathing- Look listen and feel for breathing. Look for chest movement, and listen for breathing. If victim is not breathing normally begin rescue breathing.
1. Keep the victim’s head in the proper position, pinch the nostrils shut.
2. Place your mouth over the victim’s mouth, forming a seal.Give two slow breaths each about two seconds long. The victim’s chest should rise with each breath.
C> Circulation- Check for circulation. If there’s no circulation someone who is trained for CPR should begin chest compressions immediately. If the victim responds but is still not breathing normally, give one rescue breath every 5 seconds.
Infant and Child CPR
First Aid for Shock
> restlessness or irritability
> altered consciousness
> pale or ashen appearance
> cool moist skin
> rapid breathing and pulse
> occurs when a persons airway becomes blocked by food or a object.
> victim may cough weakly, make high-pitched sounds, or turn blue in
> Call 911 if the object is not dislodged within one minute.
Responding to Common Emergencies
*Fracture- is a break in the bone.
*Unconsciousness- is condition in which a person is not alert and aware of his or her surroundings.
*Concussion- is a jarring injury to the brain that affects normal brain function.
> stretch out the affected muscle to counteract the cramp
> massage the cramped muscle firmly
> apply moist heat to the area
> get medical help if the cramp persists
Strains and Sprains (R.I.C.E.)
* Rest- avoid movements and activities that cause pain.
* Ice- ice helps reduce pain and swelling.
* Compression- light pressure from wearing an elastic wrap or bandage can help reduce swelling.
* Elevation- raising the affected limb about the level of the heart reduces pain and swelling.
> occurs when blood supply to the brain is temporarily inadequate.
> if you become the victim of fainting lie down, sit down, and place you head between your knees.
> have a conscious victim lie down
> use first aid for any bleeding
> If the victim is unconscious and you do not suspect head injury or neck injury, place that person in the recovery position, and call 911 immediately.
> wash the bite area with mild soap and warm water for five minutes to remove saliva and any other foreign matter.
> use direct pressure or pressure point bleeding control to stop any bleeding.
> if the wound is swollen, apply ice wrapped in a towel for 10 min.
> cover the wound with a clean dressing or bandage.
> often occurs when a person has been breathing dry air.
> seek professional help if they occur often.
> do not tilt the persons head back, this could cause them to choke as the blood runs down their throat.
Object in the Eye
> do not rub the eye
> wash your hands, then flush out the eye by using water.
Treatment for Poisonings
Poison- is an substance- solid, liquid, or gas- that causes injury, illness, or death when introduced into the body.
Venom- a poisonous substance secreted by a snake, spider, or other creature that is injected into the body.
Poison control center- 24-hour hot line that provides emergency medical advice on treating poisoning victims. The number is 800-222-1222.
First Aid for Poisoning
* Swallowed poisons
> determine what was swallowed and call the poison control center.
* Inhaled poisons
> quickly get the victim fresh air.
* Poison on the skin
> Remove as quickly as possible. Wash for 15 minutes.
* Poison in the eye
> Start flushing the eye with water for 15 minutes.
When Calling the Poison Control Center
* give your name, location, and telephone number.
* name the substance, when it was ingested, and the amount involved.
* describe the state of the victim, and their age and weight.
* follow instructions and answer questions.
First Aid for Poisonous Bites and Stings
> get the victim to a hospital
> keep the bite at or below the heart
> call 911
> do not apply ice or heat
> maintain breathing and prevent aggravation of the wound.
* Insect Bites and Stings
> move to a safe area to avoid harm.
> wash the area with soap and water to help prevent infection.
> if bitten by a venomous spider or scorpion call 911.
* Poisonous Plants
> try to avoid them
> if you come in contact with it remove clothing.
> flush area with water and then wash thoroughly with soap and water.
> use medicine to treat it.