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  1. Do Now Objectives Matter & Energy Demo Matter Please take 2 minutes to answer this question: • Why do we need to study (review) chemistry in our anatomy/physiology class? Do Now

  2. Do Now Objectives Matter & Energy Demo Matter Please take 2 minutes to answer this question: • What is the most common element in the universe? • What are humans made up of? Do Now

  3. New Material!!!!!! • What are the main topics for this chapter? • List three things that you think are important in this chapter: • Chose a problem from the back of the chapter that you feel is impossible for you to answer right now. Also, choose one that you can answer. Anatomy & Physiology Textbook Analysis

  4. Concepts of Matter and Energy • Differentiate clearly between matter and energy. • List the major energy forms and provide one example of how each energy form is used in the body. Objectives

  5. Matter – anything that occupies space and has mass (weight) • Energy – the ability to do work • Turn and talk about different kinds of energies: • Chemical Electrical • Mechanical Radiant Matter and Energy

  6. Feeling energy! • List all the types of energy needed in order for you to feel the electrical pulse of the machine: Demonstration

  7. Elements • Fundamental units of matter • 96% of the body is made from four elements • Carbon (C) • Oxygen (O) • Hydrogen (H) • Nitrogen (N) • Atoms • Building blocks of elements Composition of Matter

  8. Chemistry is involved in: 1. Growth 2. Interaction with the environment 3. Reproduction 4. Movement Chemistry’s Role in Human Anatomy

  9. The basic unit of matter • Made up of protons, neutrons, and electrons • nucleus = the center of the atom, contains the protons (positively charged particles) and the neutrons (no charge) • Protons and neutrons have roughly the same mass • Have the same number of electrons (negative charge) and protons (positive charge) so the overall charge on the atom is neutral (no charge) Atoms

  10. Nucleus • Protons (p+) • Neutrons (n0) • Outside of nucleus • Electrons (e-) Atomic Structure Figure 2.1

  11. Negatively charged particles • 1/1840 the mass of the neutrons/protons • Move around outside the nucleus in orbitals/shells • The first orbital (energy level) holds 2 electrons • Every other orbital can hold up to 8 electrons** • Orbitals want to be full, because then the atom is stable • The number of electrons in an atom’s outer shell determines its chemical properties** Electrons

  12. A pure substance that consists entirely of one type of atom • Represented by one or two lettersExamples: Carbon = C, Hydrogen = H, Sodium = Na, Chlorine = Cl • Determined by the number of protons in an atom – called the atomic number Examples: carbon has 6 protons, oxygen has 8 p, hydrogen has 1 p • More than 100 known elements but only 13 make up most of the mass of the human body Elements

  13. Biochem intro

  14. Atomic number • Equal to the number of protons that the atoms contain • Atomic mass number • Sum of the protons and neutrons Identifying Elements

  15. Ion = atom that has a positive or negative charge because it gained or lost an electron to fill its outer orbital Most common ions in the body: Sodium Na+ Potassium K+ Calcium Ca2+ Magnesium Mg 2+ Chlorine Cl- Bicarbonate HCO3- Biphosphate HPO42- Sulfate SO42- Ions

  16. Do Now Objectives Matter & Energy Demo Matter Please take 2 minutes to answer this question: • What elements make up most of the human body? • How do we get these elements on a regular basis? • Which element has 6 protons? Do Now

  17. Oxygen (O) 65% of body weight • Component of water, essential for respiration • Carbon (C) 18.6% • Found in all organic molecules • Hydrogen (H) 9.7% Component of H2O and most other compounds in the body • Nitrogen (N) 3.2% • Found in proteins and nucleic acids Principle Elements in the Human Body

  18. 5) Calcium (Ca) 1.8% • Found in bones and teeth, necessary for membrane function, nerve impulses, muscle contraction, and blood clotting • 6) Phosphorous (P) 1% • Found in bones and teeth, nucleic acids, and ATP • 7) Potassium (K) 0.4% • Necessary for membrane function, nerve impulses, and muscle contractions • 8) Sodium (Na) 0.2% • Necessary for membrane function, nerve impulses, and muscle contractions Principle Elements in the Human Body

  19. 9) Chlorine (Cl) 0.2 % • Important for membrane function and water absorption, major component of stomach acid • 10) Magnesium (Mg) 0.06% • Required for the activation of many enzymes • 11) Sulfur (S) 0.04% • Found in many proteins • 12) Iron (Fe) 0.007% • Essential for oxygen transport • 13) Iodine (I) 0.0002% • Component of hormones of the thyroid gland Principle Elements in the Human Body

  20. Atoms of the same element (have the same # of protons) that differ in the number of neutrons • Represented by adding together the # of protons and neutrons to determine the mass number (ex. Flourine-18) • Different isotopes of a single element have the same chemical properties because they have the same numbers of protons and electrons** Isotopes

  21. Isotopes • Have the same number of protons • Vary in number of neutrons Isotopes and Atomic Weight Figure 2.3

  22. Atomic weight • Close to mass number of most abundant isotope • Atomic weight reflects natural isotope variation Isotopes and Atomic Weight

  23. Radioisotope • Heavy isotope • Tends to be unstable • Decomposes to more stable isotope • Radioactivity • Process of spontaneous atomic decay Radioactivity

  24. How are energy and matter related? • What is the human body mostly made of? • What is the most common element in the universe? • Why did you feel the electricity yesterday? Do Now

  25. Explore the need to know basic biological chemistry. • Review and refresh chemical processes involved in the human body. • Explore how atomic structure affects atoms, molecules and eventually the human body. Objectives

  26. Isotopes whose nuclei are unstable and break down at a constant rate over time, giving off matter or energy or both in the form of radiation • Used for: 1. Treating cancer and killing bacteria 2. Following movements of atoms in body tissues (PET Scan) **Radioactive Isotopes

  27. Molecule – two or more like atoms combined chemically • Compound – two or more different atoms combined chemically Molecules and Compounds

  28. A substance formed by the combination of 2 or more elements in definite proportions • Chemical formulas are used to show what is in a compound Example: H2O, NaCl, CO2 • The chemical properties of a compound are very different from the properties of the atoms on their own • Molecule = the smallest unit of most chemical compounds (but only for covalently bonded compounds) Chemical Compounds

  29. Atoms are united by chemical bonds • Atoms dissociate from other atoms when chemical bonds are broken Chemical Reactions

  30. Electrons occupy energy levels called electron shells • Electrons closest to the nucleus are most strongly attracted • Each shell has distinct properties • Number of electrons has an upper limit • Shells closest to nucleus fill first Electrons and Bonding

  31. Bonding involves interactions between electrons in the outer shell (valence shell) • Full valence shells do not form bonds Electrons and Bonding

  32. Have complete valence shells and are stable • Rule of 8s • Shell 1 has 2 electrons • Shell 2 has 10 e • 10 = 2 + 8 • Shell 3 has 18 e • 18 = 2 + 8 + 8 Inert Elements Figure 2.4a

  33. Valence shells are not full and are unstable • Tend to gain, lose, or share electrons • Allows for bond formation, which produces stable valence Reactive Elements

  34. Please take 2 minutes to answer these questions: • What are neutrons? • How are they related to atomic mass? Quick group question

  35. A link that holds atoms together in a compound • Formed between electrons • Formed to try and achieve stability by filling outer energy level (orbital, shell) • Where the POTENTIAL ENERGY of a compound is stored • Two types: covalent bonds and ionic bonds Chemical Bonds

  36. Formed by the sharing of electrons between 2 atoms • Can be single, double, or triple • Produces a tight link between atoms Example: H20 Covalent Bonds

  37. Covalent Bonds • Atoms become stable through shared electrons • Single covalent bonds share one electron • Double covalent bonds share two electrons

  38. Do Now Please take 2 minutes to answer this question: • How are chemical bonds like human relationships? • What kind of an element are you (positively charged, negatively charged or neutral)? Explain….

  39. Objectives Content: Review reactive elements and valence “shells”. Distinguish among the different kinds of chemical bonds Language: Summarize the processes needed for synthesizing molecules, by creating a table with the definitions of synthesis, decomposition and exchange.

  40. Ion = atom that has a positive or negative charge because it gained or lost an electron to fill its outer orbital Most common ions in the body: Sodium Na+ Potassium K+ Calcium Ca2+ Magnesium Mg 2+ Chlorine Cl- Bicarbonate HCO3- Biphosphate HPO42- Sulfate SO42- Ions

  41. Formed by the transfer of 1 or more electrons from 1 atom to another • Involves ions that are attracted to each other because of their opposite charges Example: NaCl Ionic Bonds

  42. Chemical Bonds • Ionic Bonds • Form when electrons are completely transferred from one atom to another • Ions: Charged particles • Anions are negative • Cations are positive

  43. Process that changes one set of chemicals into another set of chemicals • Metabolism: sum of all the chemical reactions in the body that provide energy to maintain homeostasis and perform vital functions • Reactants – elements or compounds that enter into chemical reactions • Substrate – reactant in a biological reaction • Products – elements or compounds that are produced by chemical reactions Chemical Reactions

  44. Decomposition Reaction (Catabolism): breaks molecule into smaller fragments Example: Digestion AB  A + B • Synthesis Reaction (Anabolism): assembles larger molecules from smaller components Example: Hair Growth A + B  AB Types of Chemical Reactions

  45. Synthesis and Decomposition Reactions

  46. Reaction Video

  47. Small molecules that do not contain Carbon and Hydrogen atoms together Examples: 1. Water 2. Carbon Dioxide 3. Oxygen 4. Salts 5. Acids and Bases Inorganic Compounds

  48. Exchange Reaction: reacting molecules are rearranged Example: Sodium Bicarbonate + Hydrochloric Acid in stomach form salt, water, and CO2 AB + CD  AC + BD • Reversible Reactions (Equilibrium Reactions): actually two simultaneous reactions Example: conversion of ATP to ADP, CO2 in the blood A + B  AB Types of Chemical Reactions

  49. Types of reactions

  50. Work: movement or change in the physical structure of matter • Energy: the capacity to perform work • Two types of energy: • Potential – stored in chemical bonds • Kinetic – energy of motion • Conversion of potential energy to kinetic energy is not 100% efficient – much of the energy is lost as HEAT Energy and Work