What Motivates You?. Pride. Responsibility. Wealth. Fear. Expectations. Legacy. Approval. Recognition. Fame. ?. Envy. CH. 17, pp. 425-441. Motivation and Individual Needs. Motivation The factors that propel us to exert high levels of effort to reach goals. Need
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What Motivates You? Pride Responsibility Wealth Fear Expectations Legacy Approval Recognition Fame ? Envy CH. 17, pp. 425-441
Motivation and Individual Needs • Motivation • The factors that propel us to exert high levels of effort to reach goals. • Need • An internal state that makes certain outcomes appear attractive © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.
McGregor’s Theories Of Motivation • Theory X • The assumption that employees dislike work, are lazy, seek to avoid responsibility, and must be coerced to perform. • Theory Y • The assumption that employees are creative, seek responsibility, and can exercise self-direction. © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.
(6) Theories on Motivation • (3) Needs Theories • Maslow BD = ^ Needs • Herzberg = 2 Factor • McClelland = Acquired Needs • (3) Process Theories • Adams = Equity BD • Vroom BD = Expectancy • Locke BD = Goal setting
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs BD 5 sequential states, a satisfied need is not a motivator 5. Self- Actualization 4. Esteem or Ego 3. Affiliation or Love 2. Safety and Security 1. Physiological or Basic Needs
Equity Model BD Stacy AdamsPerceived inequity motivates behavior—positive + negative • Rewards for Self vs. Others • “Keeping Score” • Perception Dictates • Comparison Points • Internal • External • Equity = Satisfaction • Inequity = Dissatisfaction
Equity theory and the role of social comparison. How do others react to inequity?
Equity Theory: Individual Judgments • When people perceive an inequity they may: • Distort either their own or others’ inputs or outcomes. • Induce others to change their inputs or outcomes. • Change their own inputs or outcomes. • Choose a different comparisonreferent. • Quit their job. © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.
Expectancy Model BD Vroom Motivation is a function of M= E x I x V • E= expectation (Effort = Performance link) effort will lead to successful performance of the task • I = Instrumentality (Performance = Reward link) confidence that performance will lead to certain outcomes (rewards / punishment) • V= Value/Valance (Utility-Attractiveness of the reward) The value of the reward/outcome is meaningful Any “0” value for E, I, V = Zero Motivation
Job Satisfaction-concepts • Job satisfaction • The degree to which an individual feels positively or negatively about various aspects of their work/position. • Content and Context matter • Does the work have “meaning” and add value to the organization? • conditions, tasks, equipment, opportunity, compensation, supervision… • There is a Positive inverse Relationship between job satisfaction and absenteeism / turnover.
Job Characteristics Model: Core Job Dimensions • Skill variety The degree to which the job requires a variety of activities-worker uses different skills/talents • Task identity The degree to which the job requires completion of a whole/identifiable piece of work • Task significance The degree to which the job affects the lives or work of other people • Autonomy the job provides freedom, independence, and discretion to the individual • Feedback The individual obtains clear information about the effectiveness of their performance © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.
The Job Characteristics Model © 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.
Managerial Strategies • Select people who can do (learn to do) the job. • FIT is important • Focus on A + S + K = BEHAVIOR • Provide clear job description (roles/functions) • Participative goal setting/decision making • Frequent constructive feedback
Acquired Needs – McClelland • Need for Achievement • Desire: Responsibility-Challenge-Recognition-Feedback • Need for Power • Desire: Control, Influence, be Responsible for… • Personal Power: • Exploitive when used-for individualobjectives • Social Power: • Collaborative when used for organizational objectives • Need for Affiliation • Desire: Approval-Belonging-Good Relationships
Motivation • Dan Pink Motivation Science vs. Practice • Career analyst Dan Pink examines the puzzle of motivation, starting with a fact that social scientists know but most managers don't: Traditional rewards aren't always as effective as we think. Listen for illuminating stories -- and maybe, a way forward.
Motivation “One of the most widespread superstitions is that every man has special definite qualities: That a man is kind, cruel, wise, stupid, energetic, apathetic, etc. Men are not like that ...men are like rivers ...every river narrows here, is more rapid there, here slower, there broader, now clear, now cold, now dull, now warm. It is the same with men. Every man creates in himself the germs of every human quality and sometimes one manifests itself, sometimes another, and the man often becomes unlike himself, while still remaining the same man.” Tolstoy
Hi guys! What motivated me to run in this marathon? What was I thinking?
Scouting the Globe case p 451 • NFL Franchise • Mgt. strategy = long term player development • Four scouting regions • Three bonus proposals: • Reward regions with the top draft picks • Reward regions based on 3 yr. performance of draftees • Reward all regions based on overall team performance • What are + and – of each plan • Tie into motivation theories • What other plan do you suggest?