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Notes 10: Mountain Building . Intro to mountain building. Oro = mountain genesis = to build Orogenesis = building mountains!. Mountains form because of plate tectonics ! There are 2 different types of mountain formation. Fault-block mountains. Occur at faults!

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intro to mountain building
Intro to mountain building
  • Oro = mountain
  • genesis = to build
  • Orogenesis = building mountains!
slide3

Mountains form because of plate tectonics!

  • There are 2 different types of mountain formation
fault block mountains
Fault-block mountains
  • Occur at faults!
  • Fault = fracture in the earth’s crust where movement has happened
    • Example: San Andreas fault in California
fault block mountains1
Fault-block mountains
  • Hanging wall = rock surface above the fault
  • Normal fault= hanging wall moves down. This makes the crust get longer.
    • http://geology1a-1.wikispaces.com/file/view/NormalFault.gif/90969209/NormalFault.gif
fault block mountains2
Fault-block mountains
  • Form along big normal faults!
    • Hanging wall moves down, the crust is pushed up - making a mountain!
    • Example: Teton Range in Wyoming, Sierra Nevada in California
    • http://geology1a-1.wikispaces.com/file/view/NormalFault.gif/90969209/NormalFault.gif
think box
Think Box!
  • What is a fault?
  • What is a normal fault?
  • How do mountains form?
  • What are some examples of fault-block ranges?
folded mountains
Folded mountains
  • Folded mountains occur at convergent boundaries!
  • Most common type of mountain
folded mountains1
Folded mountains
  • Some background:
  • Stress = force acting on a rock. When stress is big enough, deforms rocks (change shape)
folded mountains2
Folded mountains
  • Tensional stress = pushing out (gets bigger)
  • http://earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/glossary/?term=tensional%20stress
folded mountains3
Folded mountains
  • Compression stress can lead to folding
  • Folds = wavelike ripples (like folding a sheet of paper)
folded mountains4
Folded mountains
  • 3 main types of folds:
    • Anticlines = folding up
    • Synclines = folding down, troughs
    • Monoclines = large steps
folded mountains5
Folded mountains
  • When 2 tectonic plates collide, the compressional stress forces the crust to fold up (anticlines) forming mountains!
  • Examples: Appalachian mountains, Rocky mountains, Alps, Himalayas
video questions
Video Questions
  • Describe the Earth forces that are responsible for mountain building in this part of Alaska.
  • How do we know that the coastal range in Alaska is tectonically active?
  • What do mountain growth, creation of ocean trenches, and volcanoes have in common? Where are these processes taking place on the planet? Is there a pattern?
  • Why do you think that there still are measurable residual movements from the 1964 Earthquake?
exit ticket
Exit Ticket
  • What is compressional stress?
  • What is an anticline?
  • Which type of mountains are the most common?