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Chapter 2 States & Nations. THE ORIGINS OF THE STATE. The modern state system begins with the Peace of Westphalia , 1648 . Westphalian System: The modern state system that many believe emerged out of the 1648 Peace of Westphalia: based on the sovereignty of states

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the origins of the state
  • The modern state system begins with the Peace of Westphalia, 1648.
    • Westphalian System: The modern state system that many believe emerged out of the 1648 Peace of Westphalia:
      • based on the sovereignty of states
      • political self-determination
the origins of the state1

Feudalism dominated until the 1600s.

  • Feudalism: A hierarchical system in which most people owned little and were subservient to an aristocracy that controlled most of the land and political power.
    • Peasants lived, worked, and died on estates operated by aristocrats.
    • Aristocrats answered to the monarchs – but ruled with little interference on their own estate
    • Monarchs could be removed by murder or by defeat in war, but otherwise they ruled by divine right.
philosophical origins of the state
philosophical ORIGINS OF THE STATE
  • Thomas Hobbs (1588–1679) wrote The Leviathan.
    • Hobbs suggested that society had to submit themselves to government with absolute power, or a “leviathan” that dominated society.
  • John Locke (1632–1704)
    • Locke argued that people had “natural rights” to life, liberty, and property and that they entered into a social contractwithgovernment to protect these rights.
    • Social contract: The idea that individuals give up sovereignty to government in return for which government agrees to uphold the rule of law.
the nation state
The Nation State


  • A community whose members identify with each other as sharing a common terminal (or ultimate) political identity. Usually based on common territory, history, language, culture and often religion.
  • Typically people’s strongest political loyalties are attached to their NATION.
the nation state1
The Nation State

Types of Nations:

Ethnic Nation: National identity based on a sense of common ethnicity or culture.

Theocratic Nation: National identity based on a common commitment to a particular religion.

Civic Nation: A national identity based on a shared commitment to a form of government and a STATE.

Palestinian Ethnic Nation

American Civic Nation

the nation state2
The Nation State
  • Nation State: The union of a national identity with a sovereign state government

Nationalism: Thebelief that people with a common national identity (usually marked by a shared culture and history) have the right to form an independent state and to govern themselves free of external intervention.

clicker 2 points
Clicker: 2 points
  • Nationalism in Australia tends to be focused on a common commitment to the political identity, to the Australian Constitution and its guarantees of liberty. We would define the concept of the Australian Nation as:
  • A civic nation
  • A constitutional nation
  • An ethnic nation
  • A static nation
  • A theocratic nation
the nation state3
The Nation State
  • The Union of Nation and State: Nation State:
  • National identity and THE STATE have the same boundaries
  • Creates coherent community / government identity
  • Strengthens political cohesiveness
  • Enables more stable government
  • Most early States, and most powerful States in modern politics are Nation States.
rise of states
Rise of States
  • Economic Factors –Agricultural progress first … Then

Industrial Revolution:

    • The shift away from manual labor
    • Use of non-human energy
    • Use of machines in production
    • Leads to changes in economic structures and political and social relations.
rise of states1
Rise of States

Industrial Revolution:

  • Increases Productivity
  • Expands the scope of cooperation and exchange
  • Enables larger scale political organization
  • Strengthens the STATE
ideas enhancing states
Ideas enhancing states

Wealth of Nationsby Adam Smith (published in 1776) outlined the basic concepts of capitalism.

  • Capitalism: An economic system in which the means of production are privately owned and operated for profit, and in which people sell their labor for wages and prices are set by supply and demand.
ideas enhancing states1
Ideas enhancing states


  • Private Property &
  • Private Sector Economic Choice
  • Supply and Demand
  • Competition for Profit
ideas enhancing states2
Ideas enhancing states
  • Capitalism:
  • Generates extraordinary productive capacity strengthens STATES through a strong economy.
  • Demands increasing access to resources
  • Demands increasing access to markets
  • Capitalist or Bourgeois Class becomes wealthy and powerful
  • Working or Proletariat Class grows, but low wages and harsh working conditions
history of states imperialism
History of States: Imperialism
  • Finite population and domestic market lead capitalist states to attempt expansion
  • By the 19th century, Britain had become the dominant imperial power, establishing a presence on every inhabited continent.
    • Imperialism: The extension of power (political, economic, social, or even cultural) through territorial conquest, or through the imposition of ideas and values.
history of states imperialism1
History of States: Imperialism
  • WW I & WW II: Ended imperialism as the direct occupation or control of territory.
  • WW II Effectively ended the multi-state balance of power that was the norm for relations among STATES.
  • Two Super Powers emerged with nuclear arsenals to establish a bipolar international order and a new context for STATES to work within.
the communist interlude

Communism: a new governing ideology in some STATES

    • Karl Marx (1818–1883): The most influential socialist and communist theorist
    • Marx (with Friedrich Engels [1820–1895]) proposed the theoretical foundation of socialism and communism, in The Communist ManifestoandDas Kapital.
    • Among those influenced by Marxist philosophy was Vladimir Lenin (1870–1924).
  • *more on communism when we get
  • to the chapters on communist states..
clicker 2 points1
Clicker: 2 Points
  • The primary author of The Communist Manifesto was:
  • Adolph Hitler
  • Friedrich Engels
  • John Locke
  • Karl Marx
  • Vladimir Lenin
  • The term Proletariat refers to:
  • Business owners
  • Farm workers
  • Government leaders
  • Industrial workers
  • Intellectuals
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Clicker: 2 points
  • Which of these played a primary role in actually leading the revolution and formation of the government in Russia based on his interpretation of Communist ideas?
  • Adam Smith
  • Friedrich Engels
  • Karl Marx
  • Thomas Hobbs
  • Vladimir Lenin
the communist interlude1
  • Cold war: A war of words and ideas between the Western and Soviet blocs between the late 1940s and early 1990s.


    • A colonyis a settlement established in a territoryby citizens of a foreign state.
      • Colonialism:Theprocess by which citizens of one territory live in and control another territory, which answers to the home government.


    • Newly independent states of Asia and Africa — collectively (along with Latin America) “the Third World”—were mixed.
      • Weak governments
      • Underdeveloped economies
      • Little sense of National identity
        • Multi-national statesin many cases
the revival of islam
  • Islam is the second biggest religion in the world after Christianity.
  • “Islam” means submission to God (or Allah) and is based on taking the Quran (the book of revelations given by Allah to the prophet Muhammad) as the literal word of God.
  • Islamic law consists of codes of behavior that evolved over time out of the Quran and the hadith, the collected sayings and hearsay statements of Muhammad.
the revival of islam1
  • 1979: Growing pressure and tensions led to the overthrow of the Shah of Iran and the creation of a theocratic system; its advent representing Islamic resurgence.
    • Islamic resurgence: Therediscovery of Islamic values and practices throughout the Middle East and North Africa, representing a change in political, economic, and social direction.