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the supply demand equation in em resp special needs planning response mitigation recovery
The Supply & Demand Equation inEm Resp: Special Needs Planning, Response, Mitigation & Recovery
slide2

George HeakeDirector of OperationsTemple UniversityCenter for PreparednessEducation & PracticeandEmergency CoordinatorTemple Institute on Disabilitiesthe University Center ofExcellence for Developmental Disabilities

slide3
Bo Mitchell

911 Consulting

President

Police Commissioner (Ret.)

CPP, CBCP, CHCM, CHSP, CHS-V, CSHM, CFC, CIPS, CSSM, CSC, CAS, TFCT3, CERT, CMC, CHEP, AEM

in emergencies
In Emergencies
  • Suppliers
  • Demanders
  • Interface Between the Two
suppliers7
Suppliers

Hallway of St. Rita’s Nursing Home

suppliers key concepts
SuppliersKey Concepts
  • Who are the Suppliers?
  • What are the resources that are required to be supplied to demanders for special needs planning, response and recovery?
  • Resources=“Supplies” in Demander: Supplier model
  • How do we make it happen
suppliers key concepts9
SuppliersKey Concepts
  • Who are the Suppliers of Emergency Services?
  • What are the resources that are required to be supplied to demanders for special needs planning, response and recovery?
  • How do we make it happen
key concepts
Key Concepts
  • Who are the Suppliers of Emergency Services
  •  Federal Government (Examples)
    • FEMA
    • HHS
      • Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response (ASPR)
      • Administration of Children and Families (ACF)
      • U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps
      • Administration on Aging
      • Center for Disease Control (CDC)
      • Others?
key concepts11
Key Concepts
  •  State Government
    • State Emergency Management Agencies
    • State Department of Health
    • State Department of Public Welfare
    • State Department of Aging
    • Governor’s Office on Disabilities
    • National Guard
    • Department of Education
    • Department of Transportation
    • Others?
key concepts12
Key Concepts
  • County Government
    • County Emergency Management Agencies (EMA)
    • County Health Districts
    • County Department of Behavioral Health
    • County “Satellite” offices of Various State Departments (previous slide)
    • School Districts and or county level equivalents
    • County Level Law Enforcement, EMS, Fire, Search and Rescue (SAR)
key concepts13
Key Concepts
  •  Municipalities
    • Relevant level Emergency Management Agency/Organization
    • Relevant Level Law Enforcement, EMS, Fire, Search and Rescue (SAR) if Applicable
    • Others?
key concepts14
Key Concepts
  •  Private Sector
    • Wal-Mart
    • Home Depot
    • UPS, FedEx
    • Logistics
    • Technology (why?=SNP)
    • Transportation (why?=SNP)
    • Durable Medical Equipment Suppliers
key concepts15
Key Concepts
  •  Non-Profits
    • American Red Cross

State Association of Independent Living Centers (SILs) and Community Independent Living Centers (CILs).

    • Salvation Army
    • Faith Based
      • Southern Baptist
      • Lutheran
      • Mennonite
    • Disability Councils (DD), Protection and Advocacy (PP&A), UCEDD
how have we done in the past
How have we done in the past?

Have the needs changed much over the years?

(Emergency Evacuation Disabled 1965 Hurricane Betsy

lessons indentified impact of katrina
Lessons Indentified?Impact of Katrina
  • Despite the long history of hurricanes in the Gulf States, Hurricane Katrina and the other storms of 2005 were an anomaly - far more severe than anything that had occurred before in terms of both severity and breadth. The recent history of hurricanes on the Gulf Coast were on a much smaller scale, and after a few days of inconvenience, individuals, including people with disabilities, resumed their daily lives.
  • White, G. W., Fox, M. H., Rooney, C., & Cahill, A. (2007). Assessing the impact of Hurricane Katrina on persons with disabilities. Lawrence, KS: The University of Kansas, The Research and Training Center on Independent Living.
impact of katrina
Impact of Katrina
  • The force of Katrina pushed human and material resources to extreme limits. It had a severe disruptive impact on entire communities, including people with and without disabilities as well as political, social, and legal systems.
  • White, G. W., Fox, M. H., Rooney, C., & Cahill, A. (2007). Assessing the impact of Hurricane Katrina on persons with disabilities. Lawrence, KS: The University of Kansas, The Research and Training Center on Independent Living.
impact of katrina20
Impact of Katrina
  • “About 6:15, I went and got the paper… I later heard gurgling water… I made it to the wheelchair… Then, I went down under the water three times. I called 911 on the cell phone and the operator told me to get up as high as I could get. But I told her, I said ‘Miss, I can’t get me any higher’….”
  • White, G. W., Fox, M. H., Rooney, C., & Cahill, A. (2007). Assessing the impact of Hurricane Katrina on persons with disabilities. Lawrence, KS: The University of Kansas, The Research and Training Center on Independent Living.
some statistics
Some Statistics
  • 971 Katrina-related deaths in Louisianaand 15 deaths among Katrina evacuees in other states. Drowning(40%), injury and trauma (25%), and heart conditions (11%) werethe major causes of death among Louisiana victims. Forty-ninepercent of victims were people 75 years old and older.
  • Hurricane Katrina Deaths, Louisiana, 2005Joan Brunkard, PhD, Gonza Namulanda, MS and Raoult Ratard, MD, MPH
some statistics22
Some Statistics
  • Conclusions: Hurricane Katrina was the deadliest hurricaneto strike the US Gulf Coast since 1928.
  • Drowning was the majorcause of death and people 75 years old and older were the mostaffected population cohort. Future disaster preparedness effortsmust focus on evacuating and caring for vulnerable populations,including those in hospitals, long-term care facilities, andpersonal residences.
  • Hurricane Katrina Deaths, Louisiana, 2005Joan Brunkard, PhD, GonzaNamulanda, MS and RaoultRatard, MD, MPH
some statistics23
Some Statistics
  • Conclusion (cont.)
  • Improving mortality reporting timelinesswill enable response teams to provide appropriate interventionsto these populations and to prepare and implement preventivemeasures before the next disaster.
  • Hurricane Katrina Deaths, Louisiana, 2005Joan Brunkard, PhD, GonzaNamulanda, MS and RaoultRatard, MD, MPH
nidrr report
NIDRR Report

There were significant gaps in three broad areas:

• pre-disaster planning by CILs,

individuals with disabilities, and

local emergency management

agencies;

• pre- and post-disaster

communication and information

sharing within CILs, between

White, G. W., Fox, M. H., Rooney, C., & Cahill, A. (2007). Assessing the impact of Hurricane Katrina on persons with disabilities. Lawrence, KS: The University of Kansas, The Research and Training Center on Independent Living.

nidrr report25
NIDRR Report

CILs and consumers, and

between local emergency management agencies; and

• pre- and post-disaster

coordination between CILs

and other disability agencies,

local and regional emergency

management organizations,

and community supports.

White, G. W., Fox, M. H., Rooney, C., & Cahill, A. (2007). Assessing the impact of Hurricane Katrina on persons with disabilities. Lawrence, KS: The University of Kansas, The Research and Training Center on Independent Living.

walking the walk
Walking the Walk

Short Discussion

slide28
Bo Mitchell

911 Consulting

President

Police Commissioner (Ret.)

CPP, CBCP, CHCM, CHSP, CHS-V, CSHM, CFC, CIPS, CSSM, CSC, CAS, TFCT3, CERT, CMC, CHEP, AEM

expert consultant
Expert Consultant
  • Landmark Legal Cases
  • Expected Settlements:

$1 Billion Each

  • “Failure to Plan”
  • “Failure to Train”
911 consulting clients
Western CT U.

Sprague S. D.

12 Other

Campuses

GE HQ

Health Net

Cablevision

ExxonMobil

Goodrich

911 Consulting Clients
issues
Issues

Suppliers Aware of Demanders’ Capabilities?

Demanders Aware of Suppliers’ Capabilities?

Expectations: Suppliers & Demanders re: Each Other?

Effects on SNPs?

Seamlessly Coordinated?

OR Headed for a Train Wreck?

demanders32
Demanders

Higher Ed

  • 4,146 Campuses
  • 18 Million Stdnts
threats
Threats

17,000 Students Injured on Buses

per Year

(CDC: As Reported in Emergency Rooms)

National Coalition for School Bus Safety

threats39
Threats

2,200 Fires

Yrly in College Dorms

NFPA

threats 19 sports recreation
Threats19+ : Sports/Recreation
  • 1.6 million Injuries: All Kinds
  • 66,000 Hospitalized

CDC

threats 19 sports recreation41
Threats19+ : Sports/Recreation
  • 73,000 TBIs
  • 10,500 Hospitalized

CDC

threats42
Threats
  • 16% of college students report multiple bouts of depression;
  • 1% attempted suicide.

ACHA National College Health Assessment

threats43
Threats

Tot = 797,500

per Year!

Only 42.5%

are closed with a benign explanation

DOJ

national research
National Research
  • GAO 2007
  • AHRQ 2009
  • BJS (2004-05)
  • NASRO (2001-04)
  • NCEF (2008)
national research47
National Research
  • GAO 2007: F
  • AHRQ 2009: F
  • BJS (2004-05): C
  • NASRO (2001-04): F
  • NCEF (2008): D
all nat l research most campuses
All Nat’l Research: Most Campuses
  • Under Planned
  • Under Trained
  • Under Exercised
  • Under Drilled
  • Don’t Coord/Train w. Emergency Services
coord w local es
Coord w. Local ES?

Non-Existent for:

  • Planning
  • Training
  • Exercises
  • Drills
nasro
NASRO
  • 92%: “soft targets” for terrorists
  • 74%: Inadequately prepared.
  • 51%: Em plans are not adequate.

National School-Based law Enforcement Survey

nasro51
NASRO
  • 66%: Plans are not exercised
  • 55%: Staff not receive training
  • 65%: Bus drivers not trained

National School-Based law Enforcement Survey

common planning errors
Common Planning Errors
  • Focus: Students Only
  • Drills: Spotty
  • Headcount: None
  • Emerg Team: Thin
  • Communications: Thin
common planning errors54
Common Planning Errors
  • Buses: No PTED
  • Evac Maps: Thin
  • HazCom/MSDS: Thin
  • Theater/Stage: None
common planning errors55
Common Planning Errors
  • 2nd Site: No Plan
  • Medical Emrgencies: No Standard of Care
  • Field Trips: No PTED
  • Training: Thin
no all hazards planning
Shelter in Place

Chemical Spills

Active Shooter

Hostage

Suicide Attempt

Bus Incident

Missing Student

Bullying

Kidnapping

Amber Alert

Search & Seizure

Emergency Shutdown

Earthquake

Power Failure

Mandatory Evac

Terrorism

No All-Hazards Planning
no all hazards planning57
Summer Prog

After-School

Day Care Prog

Theater Safety

Shop Safety

Fall Protection

Spill Clean-Up

Lab Safety

Visitors

Contractors

Volunteers

Field Trips

Out of St

Trips Abroad

No All-Hazards Planning
slide58
SNPs
  • Often Ignored: Plans
  • Don’t Know Definition
  • Emergency Team: Unaware
  • Always Ignored: Training, Exercises, Drills
  • No System, Command, Control, Communications, Transportation, and more…
common planning errors all about students but we ignore
Employees

Volunteers

Temps

Coaches

Visitors

Contrctrs

Day Care

After School

Summer

SNPs

Common Planning ErrorsAll About Students, But We Ignore:
common planning errors drills
Employees

Volunteers

Temps

Coaches

Visitors

Contrctrs

Day Care

After School

Summer

SNPs

Common Planning ErrorsDrills
common planning errors emergency team
Common Planning ErrorsEmergency Team
  • Not Clear Who Commands in Absence of Top People
  • Not Enough Commanders for a Real Crisis. DHS/NRF: 1:5
  • Summer? Day Care? After School? SNPs?
common planning errors training
Common Planning ErrorsTraining

Mandatory

  • Train All Personnel
  • In Classroom
  • Annually & At Hire
  • “Qualified” Trainer

(by Experience, Training)

training
Training
  • Online Can Only Supplmnt
  • Must Include:
          • Employees
          • Contractors
          • Volunteers
          • Coaches
          • Buddies: SNPs
common planning errors buses
Common Planning ErrorsBuses
  • Most Bus Companies Do Not Fulfill Their Own Training Requirements
  • What’s in Your Contract?
  • Not All Hazards: SNPs
common planning errors theater stage
Common Planning ErrorsTheater/Stage
  • Dangerous Places
  • Need a Safety Plan
  • Need Training:
          • Faculty/Staff
          • Students
          • SNPs
common planning errors medical emergency
Common Planning ErrorsMedical Emergency
  • Establish Standard of Care
  • Employees, Volunteers, Visitors, SNPs, Not Just Studs
  • When to Call 911
  • Prohibit Transport Off Campus
  • Who is Trained/How Many
common planning errors snps
Common Planning ErrorsSNPs
  • Required State & Fed Law
  • Employees, Volunteers, Visitors
  • Pregnant, Move Slowly, Hard of Hearing, Temp on Crutches, etc.
  • Integrate into Emergency Team
common planning errors 2 nd site
Common Planning Errors2nd Site
  • How Do We Do This in a Real Crisis
  • Transportation
  • 2nd Site Ready: Toilets, Phones, Medical, Heat, etc.
  • Planned? Trained? Drilled? Exercised?
common planning errors field trips
Common Planning ErrorsField Trips
  • More Than a Signed Release
  • Admin Totally Responsible Near, OOS & Abroad
  • Written Plan: Address Behaviors & Responses of Students & Adults
  • Training: Critical
  • Command/Control/Comm.
common planning errors communications
Common Planning ErrorsCommunications

Cells, Land Lands, IT & Power Will All Fail

Communicate:

  • Headcounts?
  • Injured Person?
  • SNPs?
common planning errors command control
Common Planning ErrorsCommand & Control

Little or No ICS & NIMS Training or Exercising

common planning errors command control72
Common Planning ErrorsCommand & Control
  • No Control of Students, Faculty, Visitors, Outsiders
  • No Control of Parents
common planning errors command control73
Common Planning ErrorsCommand & Control
  • No Perimeter Control
  • No Understanding of the Chaos
  • No Understanding of Their Role: IC
  • No Grasp of the Loss of Control
slide77
SNPs
  • Suppliers
  • Demanders
  • Interface Between the Two
suppliers79
FEMA

HHS

States

Counties

Local

Pvt Sctr

Non-Profits

Suppliers:
what s changed
What’s Changed?

From Betsy (’65)

to Ike (’08),

Issues of SNPs Abide Re: Suppliers & Demanders

nidrr report sign ificant gaps
NIDRR Report: Significant Gaps

Pre-/Post-Disaster Communication/Info Sharing:

  • Within CILs
  • Between CILs & Consumers
nidrr report sign ificant gaps82
NIDRR Report: Significant Gaps

Pre-/Post-Disaster Coordination:

CILs

Other Disability Agncs,

Local/Regional ES

and Support

demanders84
Demanders

Higher Ed

  • 4,146 Campuses
  • 18 Million Stdnts
national research85
National Research
  • GAO 2007: F
  • AHRQ 2009: F
  • BJS (2004-05): C
  • NASRO (2001-04): F
  • NCEF (2008): D
all nat l research most campuses86
All Nat’l Research: Most Campuses
  • Under Planned
  • Under Trained
  • Under Drilled
  • Under Exercised
  • Don’t Coord or Train w.

Emergency Services

slide87
SNPs
  • Often Ignored: Plans
  • Don’t Know Definition
  • Emergency Team: Unaware
  • Always Ignored: Training, Exercises, Drills
  • No System, Command, Control, Communications, Transportation, and more…
interface
Interface
  • Suppliers & Demanders Seamlessly Coordnted?

OR

  • Headed for a Train Wreck?
interface89
Interface

Answer Lies in:

Mythology of Preparedness

in America

national research90
National Research
  • CODE Red (2005)
  • Council for Excellence in Gov’t (2005)
taxpayers
Taxpayers
  • 19% Familiar w. State or Local Em Plans
  • 36% Familiar w. Employers Em Plan
  • 27% Familiar w. Their Campus’ Plan
  • 18% Participated in a Drill at work in last year!
taxpayers92
Taxpayers

“Great Deal” & “Quite a Lot of Confidence:”

  • Fire = 73%
  • Police = 58%
suppliers es believe
Suppliers (ES) Believe

Only 26% of emergency responder officials

say that they are

“adequately prepared”

to react to a large-scale emergency or

terrorist threat

suppliers es believe94
Suppliers (ES) Believe

65% of emergency responder officials

say that they are

“only somewhat prepared”

suppliers es believe campuses
Suppliers (ES) Believe Campuses
  • Well Planned
  • Least in Need of Attention to Emergency Planning
  • SNPs Addressed in Plans
  • Drilled Often for All Bldgs
  • Training Robust/Current
demanders campuses believe their
Demanders (Campuses)Believe Their:
  • Plans: OK to Great
  • Training: OK
  • Exercises: Don’t Need ‘Em
  • Drills: Compliant
  • Coord w ES: Don’t Do It
demanders campuses believe their97
Demanders (Campuses)Believe Their:
  • Duties: Initial Minutes
  • This Ends Their Role
  • 911: Will Take Over & Fix Emergency
demanders campuses believe their role re snps
Demanders (Campuses)Believe Their Role Re SNPs:
  • ID Where/ Who SNPs Are
  • Stand Back to Let 911 “Save the Day”
interface99
Interface

Answer Lies in:

Preparedness

Mythology

in America

preparedness mythology
Em Services

“Campuses prepare & train to regs & stndrds”

“Since 9/11, all campuses are well prepared & trained”

“Campuses Know ICS, NIMS; Ready for the IC & ICP

Preparedness Mythology
preparedness mythology101
Campuses

“Our Overall Priority: Call 911”

“My campus has a Great Em Plan”

“Since 9/11, police, fire & EMS have the best of everything. They will save the day”

Preparedness Mythology
preparedness mythology102
Em Services

“Campuses prepare & train to regs & stndrds”

“Since 9/11, all campuses are well prepared & trained”

“Campuses Know ICS, NIMS; Ready for the IC & ICP

Campuses

“Our Overall Priority: Call 911”

“My campus has a Great Em Plan”

“Since 9/11, police, fire & EMS have the best of everything. They will save the day”

Preparedness Mythology
preparedness mythology103
Em Services

“Campuses prepare & train to regs & stndrds”

“Since 9/11, all campuses are well prepared & trained”

“Campuses Know ICS, NIMS; Ready for the IC & ICP

Campuses

“Our Overall Priority: Call 911”

“My campus has a Great Em Plan”

“Since 9/11, police, fire & EMS have the best of everything. They will save the day”

Preparedness Mythology
preparedness mythology104
Em Services

“Campuses prepare & train to regs & stndrds”

“Since 9/11, all campuses are well prepared & trained”

“Campuses Know ICS, NIMS; Ready for the IC & ICP

Campuses

“Our Overall Priority: Call 911”

“My campus has a Great Em Plan”

“Since 9/11, police, fire & EMS have the best of everything. They will save the day”

Preparedness Mythology
preparedness mythology105
Em Services

“Campuses prepare & train to regs & stndrds”

“Since 9/11, all campuses are well prepared & trained”

“Campuses Know ICS, NIMS; Ready for the IC & ICP

Campuses

“Our Overall Priority: Call 911”

“My campus has a Great Em Plan”

“Since 9/11, police, fire & EMS have the best of everything. They will save the day”

Preparedness Mythology
interface106
Interface
  • Suppliers & Demanders Seamlessly Coordnted?

OR

  • Headed for a Train Wreck?
interface107
Interface

Headed for a Train Wreck!

recommendations109
Recommendations
  • Review Campus Plans

Training

Exercise

Drills

recommendations110
Recommendations
  • Review Campus PTED
  • Ensure Robust Training

Exercise

Drills

recommendations111
Recommendations
  • Review Campus PTED
  • Ensure Robust TED
  • Focus on SNPs re:

Training

Exercises

Drills

recommendations112
Recommendations
  • Review Campus PTED
  • Ensure Robust TED
  • Focus on SNPs re TED
  • Conduct:
          • TTX & FSE
          • ICS & NIMS
          • Incl. SNPs
recommendations113
Recommendations
  • Review Campus PTED
  • Ensure Robust TED
  • Focus on SNPs re TED
  • Conduct TTX, FSE, NIMS/ICS:

Incl. SNPs

  • Manpower:

CERT Programs

recommendations114
Recommendations
  • Review Campus PTED
  • Ensure Robust TED
  • Focus on SNPs re TED
  • Conduct TTX, FSE, ICS/NIMS: Incl. SNPs
  • Manpower: CERT
denial
Denial

“JAWS”