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Why Imperialism?. Europe showing economic benefits of imperialism New markets in rare resources from Africa & Asia Yellow journalism Increased public interest in foreign “ exotic and adventurous ” lands Missionaries Wanted to “ save ” un-Christian natives of these lands

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why imperialism
Why Imperialism?
  • Europe showing economic benefits of imperialism
    • New markets in rare resources from Africa & Asia
  • Yellow journalism
    • Increased public interest in foreign “exotic and adventurous” lands
  • Missionaries
    • Wanted to “save” un-Christian natives of these lands
      • Reverend Josiah Strong leader of movement
  • Capt. Alfred Thayer Mahan’s “Influence of Sea Power Upon History”
    • Stressed that key to power is through the navy
    • Effect of book:
      • U.S. starts building up Navy
      • Stronger navy allows for imperialism
why imperialism1
Why Imperialism?
  • Widely believed social theories:
  • Darwin’s “survival of the fittest” theory:
    • Weaker nations will wither away due to course of nature
    • Thus, it’s only natural for stronger nations to conquer the weak
  • Kipling’s “The White Man’s Burden”:

(Read the poem silently and turn to a partner to discuss it’s meaning)

    • Theorized that “white” Europe and America have a responsibility to colonize to “help” the weaker nations
      • Thus make own nation stronger
  • Both used as justification for imperialism
International Incidents & PoliciesHow does each push America towards imperialism and the need for a strong navy?
  • James G. Blaine’s “Big Brother” (AKA “Big Sister”) policy
    • U.S. responsibility to protect Latin America
  • 1882 – Blaine leads Pan-American Conference
    • U.S. mediates disputes between Latin American countries

Push towards imperialism/navy?

  • Goals for Blaine were imperialistic:
    • Make Latin America supportive and reliant on U.S.
    • Allow U.S. to have direct influence in Latin American politics
1888 – Standoff: USA vs. Germany over Samoa
    • Result: Samoa split in half
  • 1891 – Standoff: USA vs. Italy – 11 Italian immigrants lynched in New Orleans
    • Result: USA made payments to Italian families

Push towards imperialism/navy?

Navy needed strengthening in case of war

  • 1889 – Standoff: USA vs. Britain after gold is discovered in Guiana (Venezuelan region)
    • Britain attempts to take over and mine gold – Issue?
    • Breaking the Monroe Doctrine
    • Result:
      • Venezuela pleads with U.S. for help
      • U.S. steps in and sticks up for “little sister”
  • Britain backs down, war narrowly avoided

Push towards imperialism/navy?

    • Strengthens Latin American dependence on U.S.
    • Navy needed strengthening in case of war
  • American “economic imperialism” present in Hawaii since early 1800s
    • Fruit and sugar companies had lots of power over islands due to economic power
    • Hawaii regarded as a “little sister” as well
  • Reasons for imperialism:
    • Companies feared Japan might try to take over
    • Resistance of native Hawaiians growing
    • McKinley’s high import tax was hurting American companies in Hawaii
  • Solution?
    • Annex Hawaii
hawaii s annexation
Hawaii’s Annexation?
  • Queen Liliuokalani refused

to give up power

    • 1893 – Americans in Hawaii

& dethrone Queen with

some U.S. military help

  • President Grover Cleveland upset by non-diplomatic methods
    • Refused to sign off on annexation
    • Temporary republic set up by business owners
  • Hawaii eventually annexed in 1898 by McKinley
  • 1895 – Cubans revolt against Spain
  • American roots for Cuba – why?
    • Supports the Monroe Doctrine policy
    • Cuba valuable for ports and location
    • Sentimental of American revolution
  • Spanish General Weyler sent to stop revolt
    • Harsh tactics: concentration camps for “insurrectos”
effect of yellow journalism
Effect of Yellow Journalism
  • Hearst & Pulitzer portray Weyler as super villain
    • Embellished pictures outrage Americans
  • The de Lome letter
    • Stolen letter written by Spanish diplomat insulting McKinley is published in Hearst’s newspapers
    • Americans angered
  • The U.S.S. Maine explosion (1898)
    • Ship explodes in Havana harbor killing 258 American sailors
    • Cause of explosion unknown but the yellow press blamed Spain
    • American public demanded war for revenge on Spain
  • McKinley reluctantly gives in, Congress declares war April 1898
    • Teller Amendment – U.S. promises not to annex Cuba after war
spanish american war
Spanish-American War
  • Spanish-American War
    • War heavily supported by the public
    • America overconfident and underprepared
    • Poor planning on both sides
war in the pacific
War in the Pacific
  • Secretary of the Navy Teddy Roosevelt sees chance for imperialistic gains
  • Roosevelt orders Commodore George Dewey to attack Spain in the Philippines
    • May 1, 1898 – Dewey attacks and first battle of war ensues
    • 10 aged Spanish ships vs. 6 modern American ships
    • Very one-sided naval battle – America wins naval battle
      • Unprepared: couldn’t invade – must wait on foot soldier reinforcements
      • Aug 13 – U.S. captures Manila from Spain with help of Filipino insurgents against Spain
    • Americans save Filipino rebel leader Emilio Aguinaldo from exile to help fight Spain
  • Now with U.S. controlling Philippines, a coaling station needed between Southeast Asia & California…
    • Hawaii officially annexed in 1898
war in the caribbean
War in the Caribbean
  • U.S. led by Gen. William Shafter
  • Teddy Roosevelt resigns from Sec. of Navy to fight in war
    • Organizes “Rough Riders” cavalry – horseless cavalry
    • Unprepared: couldn’t get horses from ships to shore
  • Spain sends fleet to Santiago’s narrow harbor
    • Mistake: creates a gauntlet for Spain to get in or out
  • U.S. sends ships and troops to Santiago
    • Unprepared: soldiers issued wool uniforms – suffer in extreme summer heat
    • U.S. navy blockades harbor and soldiers surrounded the Spanish from the other side of the harbor
    • Spain tries to run gauntlet out of the harbor and gets mowed down by the U.S. navy
  • U.S. easily takes Spanish-owned Puerto Rico and Guam too
  • Spain surrenders and signs armistice by August 1898
aftermath of spanish american war
Aftermath of Spanish American War
  • Effects of the “Splendid Little War”
    • Unprepared: poor medical planning – more soldiers (5,000) will die of disease than in battle (4,000)
    • U.S. seen as a rising world power
    • North vs. South tension disappears a bit
      • Common enemy was the Spaniards, not each other
  • Teddy Roosevelt rises to fame
  • Post-war treaty proposed:
    • Cuba would be free
    • U.S. would gain Puerto Rico, Guam, and control of Philippines
  • What to do with all these countries?
  • Promised freedom to Cuba, but America wanted to ensure a stable government would take power:
    • Temporary military government led by Col. Leonard Wood
    • Sets up Cuban government, education system, agriculture
    • Makes medical advancements to combat rampant disease
  • U.S. leaves Cuba by 1902 – creates Platt Agreement:
    • U.S. approves all Cuban treaties
    • U.S. could intervene if Cuban economy crashes
    • U.S. military owns one coaling station in Cuba
      • Guantanamo Bay
puerto rico
Puerto Rico
  • Retained as an unincorporated territory of the U.S.
    • Issue: Do American laws apply here?
    • Series of “Insular Cases” taken to Supreme Court
    • Supreme Court declares American laws don’t extend to these new lands
  • Improvements made in sanitation, transportation, education, etc
  • Foraker Act gives P.R. limited elected government
  • 1917 – Puerto Ricans granted full U.S. citizenship
    • Many freely move to New York City
the philippines dilemma
The Philippines Dilemma
  • Big issue at treaty talks: “What to do with the Philippines?”
  • Give back to Spain?
    • Spain ruled harshly and abusive of natives
  • Let Filipinos rule themselves?
    • Could result in chaos due to rival warlords
  • U.S. takes over the country?
    • Would make U.S. look like imperial bullies
    • Angry Filipinos willing to fight for freedom
  • McKinley decides to take over Philippines           
    • Swayed by yellow press’s effect on public opinion and imperialist business owners
    • $20 million paid to Spain for Philippines
the philippines dilemma1
The Philippines Dilemma
  • Senate still needs to approve treaty – debate ensues:
    • Anti-Imperialist League lobby against annexation:
      • Unlike Hawaii or Alaska, Philippines had a heavily resistant population and out of U.S. “jurisdiction”
    • Imperialists lobby for annexation:
      • “The White Man’s Burden” used as justification
  • Treaty approved by one vote in Senate
filipino resistance
Filipino Resistance
  • Filipinos felt deceived by USA, wanted independence
    • Feb 4, 1899 – Emilio Aguinaldo leads uprising – ironic?
  • Philippine-American War
    • Fighting lasts for over a year
    • America uses cruel tactics to suppress Filipinos
    • American soldiers die more from disease than battle
  • Diplomatic solutions taken
    • William H. Taft sent to serve as civil governor of Philippines
    • Taft well liked by Filipinos
filipino resistance1
Filipino Resistance
  • Taft institutes “benevolent assimilation” policy:
    • Goal was to caringly help and improve the Philippines
    • Millions of American dollars invested in Filipino infrastructure:
      • Sanitation, roads, education, economy, healthcare
  • Fighting fades away, but desire for independence still alive
  • Philippines not granted freedom until 1946.
imperialized china
Imperialized China
  • Separated into “spheres of influence” by Europe
    • Various European countries had exclusive trade rights in coastal cities of China
  • American business wants in on China’s natural resources
  • Sec. of State John Hay drafts “Open Door Policy”
    • Suggests that Chinese cities should be open to all nations for trade – ban all exclusive trade rights
  • Europe not willing to compromise
  • 1899 – China’s Boxer Rebellion against foreigners quelled by combined forces of Europe and America
  • Open Door Policy now accepted at treaty talks
  • America now has open and lucrative trade with China
election of 1896
Election of 1896
  • Issues:
    • Base currency off gold, silver, or both?
    • Demands of working class vs. worried upper classes
  • Reps nominate William McKinley
    • “Safe” choice: Civil War vet, good Congressional record, pro-tariff, friendly and likeable
    • Very pro-business
  • Dems nominate William Jennings Bryan
    • “Boy orator of the Platte”
    • Young (36), great speaker & debater from Nebraska
    • Anti-tariff, used Populist Party’s main platform: coin more silver
      • Populists started joining the Democrats:
        • “Dem-Pop” Party
  • McKinley exploits economic fears of country, drums up far more campaign money
  • McKinley easily wins election
  • Results & effects of election?
    • Currency will be based on gold, not silver
    • Victory for business owners and upper classes
president william mckinley
President William McKinley
  • Very safe and cautious with his decisions
    • Made decisions based off public opinion
    • Two issues: gold vs. silver & fix economy
  • Dingley Tariff Act (1897) – significantly raised tariff to 46%
    • Goal was to increase revenue & fix economy after Panic of 1893
    • Cleveland’s low Wilson-Gorman Tariff deemed ineffective
  • Gold Standard Act (1900)
    • Allowed for people to trade paper money for gold
    • More symbolic than anything
    • Giving people the option brought calmness and confidence in the economy
  • Gold discovered in Alaska causes inflation
    • Helps lower classes
  • McKinley successful in fixing economy
    • Country pulled out of recession
    • Pro-business policies, inflation from gold discovery, gold vs. silver debate solved…
  • Allows for calmness and confidence in economy
    • Calmness and confidence →economic growth
    • Uncertainty in economy → hinders growth

The Rise of Imperialism

  • Europe had been colonizing in Africa and Asia for most of the 1800s
  • Isolationist America turning towards imperialism now
election of 1900
Election of 1900
  • Rematch between McKinley and William Jennings Bryan
  • Mudslinging:
    • Bryan: McKinley is an imperialist bully and war monger
    • McKinley: Bryan as president would kill American prosperity
  • McKinley chose famous and beloved Teddy Roosevelt as VP
  • McKinley is easily reelected…
  • McKinley shot and killed 6 months into second term
    • Assassin was a disgruntled anarchist
    • Secret Service reassigned to full-time duty of protecting presidents and politicians
president theodore roosevelt
President Theodore Roosevelt
  • AKA “Teddy” or “TR”
  • Short, brawny New Yorker, Harvard grad
  • Theory of role: a president should lead, not supervise
  • Motto: “Speak softly and carry a big stick”
    • Ironic because TR was boisterous, stubborn, and temperamental
  • BELOVED by the public – why?
    • Press often portrayed him a spunky, cartoonish, war-hero
imperialist teddy panama canal
Imperialist Teddy: Panama Canal
  • TR wants canal in Central America built – why?
    • Would greatly benefit trade and power of navy
    • French engineer Philippe Bunau-Varilla hired
  • Obstacles:
    • European jurisdictions
    • Location of canal: Nicaragua? Panama?
    • Panama chosen, but is part of Columbia – refused to give up land
the panama canal
The Panama Canal
  • Bunau-Varilla incited Panama rebellion in 1901
  • U.S. Navy helps Panama in wining independence from Columbian “tyrants”
    • Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty signed between Panama and U.S.
  • Approves construction and lease of canal to U.S
  • Panama Canal completed in 1914
    • Obstacles of sanitation, disease, and overwhelming engineering task overcome
    • Construction led by George Washington Goethals
u s latin america relations damaged
U.S.-Latin America Relations Damaged
  • Canal causes major tension because of “Big Stick Policy”
    • Bullying techniques used to cause war between Panama and Columbia
  • Latin American countries consistently behind in repaying debts to Europe
  • TR worried Europe would intervene – problem?
    • Violates Monroe Doctrine
    • Creates the “Roosevelt Corollary”
    • Amendment to Monroe Doctrine stating U.S. will intervene and collect debts for Europe
  • U.S. significantly intervenes in Cuba in 1906, and later Nicaragua, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic
  • TR’s “Big Stick Policy” contradicts the intended “Good Neighbor Policy”
  • Latin American relations with U.S. deteriorate
teddy the peacemaker
Teddy the Peacemaker
  • 1905 – TR asked to mediate treaty talks after Russo-Japanese War
    • Both Japan and Russia unhappy with results, especially Japan
    • Relations between all three countries decline
  • 1906 – TR successfully mediates a dispute in North Africa
  • Wins Nobel Peace Prize for peace-making work
rocky relations with japan
Rocky Relations with Japan
  • Japan bitter after TR’s mediation
  • Small number of Japanese laborers begin to migrate to California
    • “Yellow peril” sweeps through state thanks to influence of press
  • 1906 – Asian immigrants segregated from SF Schools
  • Japan outraged at treatment of Japanese in California – talks of war
    • TR makes “Gentleman’s Agreement” to end issue
    • Asian segregation in schools ends, Japan halts emigration to U.S.
  • TR worried agreement makes America look weak
  • Sends the “Great White Fleet” on “diplomatic good-will mission”…
    • Subtly shows power of U.S. military
  • U.S. and Japan sign Root-Takahira agreement – respect for each other’s territories
progressive party rises
Progressive Party Rises
  • New reform movement gaining influence – “Progressives”
    • Roots from Greenback Party (1870s) and Populist Party (1890s)
  • Goal: to achieve social justice by using government as an “agency of human welfare”
  • Calling for more government intervention, less “laissez-faire” capitalism
  • 1902 – “Muckrakers” emerge – writers and social critics exposing corruption and injustice through newspapers and magazines
    • “Cosmopolitan”Magazine
    • “The Shame of Cities”by Lincoln Steffens
who was the progressive party
Who was the Progressive Party?
  • Mostly made up of middle class
    • Felt squashed between business tycoons at top and working class at bottom
  • Political reforms wanted:
    • Initiative and referendum – public can propose & vote on laws
    • Recall – voters can remove elected officials
    • Secret ballot – ensures free and fair voting
    • Female suffrage
women s movement
Women’s Movement
  • Lillian Ward & Jane Addams lead suffrage movement
    • Create “Hull House” in Chicago to help working class and immigrants
  • Women’s rights gaining strength through legislation:
    • 1908 – Muller v. Oregon – extra laws to protect female workers deemed constitutional
    • 1911 – Triangle Shirtwaist Fire – new motion for laws for better hours, conditions, safety, and worker compensation
  • Prohibition Movement
    • Anti-Saloon League join Woman’s Christian Temperance Movement
    • Well-organized, well-financed
    • Many states started banning alcohol
      • Half of Americans by 1914 live in “dry” areas
    • 1919 – 18th Amendment passes “Prohibition”
      • Alcohol sale, consumption, and possession banned
teddy the progressive
Teddy the Progressive
  • TR deeply influenced by “muckrakers” progressivism – ironic?
    • TR created the derogatory name
  • Teddy calls platform: “The Square Deal”:
    • Vows to accomplish the “Three C’s”:
      • Control corporations
      • Consumer protection
      • Conservation of natural resources
1 st c control the corporations
1st C: Control the Corporations
  • Creates the Dept. of Commerce and Labor
    • Bureau of Corporations responsible for:
    • Investigating interstate trade
    • Stops railroad corruption & bullying
    • Breaking up monopolies (AKA “trusts”)
  • Teddy the “Trust buster”
    • TR proudly begins to break up monopolies
    • Disbands over 40 “bad” trusts
      • Biggest was JP Morgan’s trust
    • “Good” trusts were allowed to operate
2 nd c consumer protection
2nd C: Consumer Protection
  • 1906 – “The Jungle”by Upton Sinclair exposes horrible conditions of meat packing industry
    • Has major influence on public and Congress
  • 1906 – Meat Inspection Act and Pure Food and Drug Act both passed
    • Proper labeling techniques, inspection, prevents tampering
    • Results in increased exports of American meat
3 rd c conservation of natural resources
3rd C: Conservation of Natural Resources
  • By 1900, America realizing natural resources not unlimited
  • TR leads conservation movement
    • 1902 – Newlands Act – massive irrigation projects in West
    • TR lawfully protects 125 million acres of forest
  • TR still a pragmatist over a conservationist
    • Example: HetchHetchy Valley in Yosemite
    • Leads to a philosophical split
the roosevelt panic of 1907
The “Roosevelt Panic” of 1907
  • Sudden sharp economic downturn
  • Beloved Teddy solely blamed
  • Congress passes Aldrich-Vreeland Act (1908)
    • Authorizes national banks to release money into circulation
    • An elastic supply of currency could now help during recessions
    • Would lead to the Federal Reserve Act (1913)
election of 1908
Election of 1908
  • TR still very popular announced he would not run for a third term
    • Endorses a similar-minded politician
  • William Taft is Rep. Nominee
    • Taft was BIG and very likeable
  • William Jennings Bryan is Dem. Nominee for 3rd time
  • Taft easily wins election
    • Much help from TR’s popularity
  • Socialist Party candidate Eugene Debs gets 3% of popular vote – significance?
    • Debs rose to fame in Pullman Strike in Chicago
    • Sign of the times: social justice movement
teddy s legacy
Teddy’s Legacy
  • Brought big business under control
  • Increases role of presidency
  • Passes wide range of reform
  • Showed U.S. was a world power
    • Therefore U.S. had “major responsibility” TR stressed
president william h taft
President William H. Taft
  • Taft was well-liked, but less like TR than expected:
    • Hands-off approach to leading
    • Mildly progressive
    • Desired stability rather than reform
  • Taft pushed “Dollar Diplomacy” policy:
    • America would strategically invest in foreign countries to gain power
    • Therefore, U.S. could gain power and money simultaneously
    • Very different from TR’s Big Stick Policy
  • Dollar Diplomacy in action:
    • Purchase of Chinese railroads fail – blocked by Russia & Japan
    • U.S. heavily invests in Latin America
    • U.S. now responsible for maintaining stability in Latin America
taft the trustbuster
Taft the Trustbuster
  • Taft “out-busts” TR – 90 trusts disbanded in his term
    • Biggest was Rockefeller’s Standard Oil Company
  • Taft attempts to break up U.S. Steel Company
    • TR had deemed it one of the “good trusts”
    • Taft refuses to halt investigation, TR furious
republicans split
Republicans Split
  • “Old, traditional” Reps vs. “New, progressive” Reps
  • 2 big dividing issues: the tariff & conservation
    • Old Reps: high tariff, develop land for economic benefit
    • New Reps: low tariff, conserve lands
  • Taft promised to lower tariff during campaigning
    • Signs Payne-Aldrich Bill which raises tariff
    • Further splits Rep. Party
  • Taft allows for Wyoming, Montana, Alaska to be open for development
    • Very unpopular with public
  • Who’s bound to gain power from this split?
    • Democrats win heavily in Congressional Elections in 1910
the taft roosevelt rupture
The Taft-Roosevelt Rupture
  • The Republican Party officially splits:
    • 1911 – National Progressive Republican League
    • Led by Senator Robert La Follette
  • Roosevelt so upset by Taft’s presidency, he decides to run again
  • Progressive Republican Party nominates TR
  • June 1912 – Republican Presidential Convention
    • Taft vs. Roosevelt, winner would run as Rep. nominee for president
    • Convention votes on Taft – why?
    • Incumbent, fear public wouldn’t vote for a 3rd term president
  • Teddy refused to step aside, vows to run as a 3rd party candidate
election of 1912
Election of 1912
  • Republican Party nominates Taft
  • Progressive Party nominates Roosevelt
    • “Bull Moose Party”
  • Democratic Party nominates Dr. Woodrow Wilson
    • Governor of New Jersey
    • Very progressive minded
  • Two Major Platforms:
    • Roosevelt’s “New Nationalism”
      • Only disband “bad” trusts, female suffrage, social welfare programs
    • Wilson’s “New Freedom”
      • Disband all trusts, supported small business
  • Mudslinging and incident:
    • Major mudslinging between Taft and Roosevelt
    • Roosevelt shot on campaign trail, survives
election of 19121
Election of 1912
  • Wilson wins easily
    • Popular vote:
    • Wilson: 42%
    • Roosevelt: 28%
    • Taft: 23%
  • Why is this significant?
    • Majority wanted a Republican president, not Wilson
  • Taft retires from politics, goes to law school
    • Becomes Chief Justice of Supreme Court in 1921
  • Teddy goes on expedition of South Africa
  • Side note: Eugene Debs (Socialist) gets 6% of popular vote
president woodrow wilson
President Woodrow Wilson
  • Born and raised in South, very intelligent, deeply religious, believed president should lead
    • Very different than TR:
  • Stubborn idealist, not a pragmatist
    • Sometimes detrimental to achieving goals
    • Not a people’s person
    • A Progressive President…
  • Wilson vows to tear down “triple wall of privilege”:
    • The tariff, the banks, the trusts
domestic triple wall of privilege
Domestic: “Triple Wall of Privilege”
  • Major reforms made:
  • Tariffs: The Underwood Tariff (1913)
    • Reduced tariffs on imports
    • Initiated a graduated income tax
  • Banking: Federal Reserve Act (1913)
    • Creates appointed Federal Reserve Board
    • Oversee 12 regional, federal banks
    • Issue paper money to regulate amount of currency in circulation
    • Made conservative appointments to Board to keep business tycoons happy
  • Trusts: Federal Trade Commission Act (1914)
    • Investigates activities of trust
    • Goal: stop crooked business practices affecting consumers
    • Clayton Anti-Trust Act (1914) also passed
      • Forbade price discrimination, interlocking directorates, helped union rights
domestic wilsonian progressivism
Domestic: “Wilsonian Progressivism”
  • Follows up with several reforms:
    • Protection for farmers
    • Better treatment and pay for sailors
  • Paved way for better worker’s rights:
    • Worker’s Compensation Act (1916)
    • Adamson Act (1916)
      • 8-hour workday and overtime
  • Made small steps toward ethnic equality
    • Appoints Louis Brandeis, first Jewish Supreme Justice
    • Little done for African Americans during progressivism
      • W.E.B. Du Bois created National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
international wilson s foreign policy
International: Wilson’s Foreign Policy
  • Wilson a pacifist and anti-imperialist:
    • Blocked American involvement in mass loan to China
    • Got Congress to repeal Panama Canal Tolls Act (1912)
      • American ships now had to pay tolls
    • Jones Act (1916) granting territorial status of Philippines
      • Promises independence when stable government is established
    • Defused situation with Japan over treatment of Japanese in California
    • Purchases Virgin Islands from Denmark for protective reasons
      • United States Virgin Islands
international wilson s foreign policy1
International: Wilson’s Foreign Policy
  • Wilson a pacifist and anti-imperialist:
    • Why might this have a dangerous outcome on America internationally?
    • America already had many businesses and land overseas
      • From Taft’s Dollar Diplomacy
      • Abandoning them?
  • Forced to send Marines to protect American investments in Haiti and Dom. Rep. after violence erupts
  • Mexican Revolution…
mexican revolution 1910
Mexican Revolution (1910)
  • Extremely poor and oppressed population revolts
    • Political chaos breaks out among rival warlords
    • Mass immigration to Southwestern U.S. ensues
  • Fearing war, Wilson declines to protect American businesses
    • Rebel Pancho Villa despises American business in Mexico
    • Raids and kills 16 American engineers
    • Kills 19 more in near border in New Mexico
  • Wilson sends in Army to catch Pancho Villa
    • Meet resistance from rival Mexican armies
    • Troops called back to U.S. in 1914 – why?
    • WWI starts, never catch Pancho Villa