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The Conservative Tide

The Conservative Tide

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The Conservative Tide

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  1. The Conservative Tide President Ronald Reagan’s election marks a rightward shift in domestic and foreign policy. With the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Cold War ends and the U.S. confronts a host of domestic problems. NEXT

  2. Timeline of Events 1979: Iranian hostage crisis ; Margaret Thatcher becomes first female prime minister of Great Britain; Soviets invade Afghanistan 1980: Ronald Reagan elected president; U.S. men’s hockey team beats Russians in the Olympics 1981: Iranian hostages released; unsuccessful assassination attempts on Ronald Reagan and Pope John Paul II; Reagan fires striking air traffic controllers; first Ohio-class submarine begins duty; Farewell intelligence operation against the Soviet Union begins 1982: Falklands War; Equal Rights Amendment falls short of ratification 1983: “Star Wars” initiative revealed; United States invades Grenada; Marine barracks in Beirut blown up; U.S. recession hits bottom 1984: U.S. economy improves; Reagan reelected NEXT

  3. Timeline of Events 1985: Mikhail Gorbachev becomes leader of the Soviet Union. 1986: Iran-Contra affair comes to light; Space Shuttle Challenger disaster; United States bombs Libya after Berlin discotheque bombing; Chernobyl nuclear power plant failure; Reykjavík, Iceland, talks between Reagan and Gorbachev; United States passes Simpson-Mazzoli immigration amnesty bill 1987: Teenage German pilot evades Soviet defenses to land a private plane on Red Square; Reagan’s Brandenburg Gate speech 1988: Soviet Union begins perestroika (economic restructuring); George H. W. Bush elected president; B-2 stealth bomber revealed; Hungary rolls up its section of the Iron Curtain fence; Bruce Springsteen plays East Berlin 1989: Solidarity union legalized in Poland; Soviets pull out of Afghanistan; Exxon Valdez oil spill; Tiananmen Square protests; Solidarity wins in Polish elections; Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania demand independence from the Soviet Union; Hungarian Republic declared; Berlin Wall torn down; Bulgaria move sfromCommunist to socialist; non-Communist government formed in Czechoslovakia; Romanian revolution ousts Communist government NEXT

  4. Section 1 A Conservative Movement Emerges A strong conservative movement begins with the election in 1980 of President Ronald Reagan and Vice-President George Bush. NEXT

  5. SECTION A Conservative Movement Emerges 1 The Conservative Movement Builds Conservative Issues • Entitlement programsprovide guaranteed benefits to specific groups • High cost of programs, stories of fraud upset taxpayers 2008 Study • •A study of trends in leisure (free time) found that there had been an increase in Americans’ leisure time since 1965. Largest increase came among the poor and less educated, contributing to the growing inequality gap. • In Obama’s first term, food stamp use rose to record levels &number of people receiving some form of government assistance reached nearly 50%. Entitlements drove debt far more than the military expenditures. Continued . . . NEXT

  6. SECTION A Conservative Movement Emerges 1 The Conservative Movement Builds (cont.) The New Right • • New Right—collection of grass-roots groups (big business, religious leaders, average U.S. citizens) promoting that social spending and welfare needed to be cut to reduce the tax burden on individuals and families. • Government regulations were inhibiting economic growth and personal freedoms. • •Affirmative action—special consideration for women, minorities - many say it’s reverse discrimination, favoring one group over others Continued . . . NEXT

  7. SECTION 1 continuedThe Conservative Movement Builds The Conservative Coalition • Business, religious, other groups form conservative coalition • Conservative periodicals, think tanks discuss, develop policies • Goals are small government, family values, patriotism, business The Moral Majority • 1970s religious revival uses TV, radio; strong among fundamentalists • Jerry Falwell’sMoral Majority—Christians for traditional morals NEXT

  8. SECTION 1 Conservatives Win Political Power Reagan’s Qualifications • Ronald Reaganwins 1980 Republican nomination - George H. W. Bush is running mate • Reagan served 2 terms as governor of California The 1980 Presidential Election • Reagan runs on conservative issues, weak economy, Iran crisis • Called Great Communicator: can simplify issues, give clear answers • Gets 51% popular vote, 44 states in electoral race by a vote of 489 to 49,Senate has Republican majority NEXT

  9. Section 2 Conservative Policies Under Reagan and Bush Presidents Reagan and Bush pursue a conservative agenda that includes tax cuts, budget cuts, and increased defense spending. NEXT

  10. SECTION Conservative Policies Under Reagan and Bush 2 “Reaganomics” Takes Over Reagan’s Economic Policies • Reagan encourages private investment by cutting federal government • Reaganomics: budget cuts, tax cuts, increased defense spending Budget Cuts • Maintains some entitlement programs and reduces others or places stricter requirements for qualifying for entitlements. Continued . . . NEXT

  11. SECTION 2 continued“Reaganomics” Takes Over Tax Cuts • Supply-side economicsholds that lower taxes result in: - investment, greater productivity, more supply, lower prices • Congress decreases taxes by 25% over 3 years, instead of all at once as Reagan wanted. Increased Defense Spending • Defense Dept. budget increases • Reagan asks scientists for Strategic Defense Initiative (AKA “Star Wars”) - anti-missile defense system Continued . . . NEXT

  12. SECTION 2 continued“Reaganomics” Takes Over Continued . . . NEXT

  13. SECTION 2 continued“Reaganomics” Takes Over Recession and Recovery • July 1981–Nov. 1982, worst recession (started under Carter administration)since Great Depression • 1983 consumer spending due to tax cuts (people get to keep more of their own money) fuels economic upturn: - more consumer confidence, decrease in inflation, decrease in unemployment • 1987, market declines, then recovers, continues up The National Debt Climbs • Spending outstrips revenues; new 1982 taxes do not balance budget;National debt almost doubles by end of Reagan’s first term NEXT

  14. SECTION 2 Judicial Power Shifts to the Right Supreme Court Appointments • Reagan appoints Sandra Day O’Connorfirst woman justice • Other Reagan, Bush appointments make Court more conservative • Clarence Thomas confirmed after sexual harassment hearings • Court places restrictions on civil rights, abortion NEXT

  15. SECTION 2 Deregulating the Economy Reducing the Size of Government • Reagan reduces government by deregulation— less industry regulation - increases competition, results in lower prices Eliminates or reduces government agencies • Cuts budget of Environmental Protection Agency(EPA) - fights pollution, conserves natural resources • Interior Dept. permits more oil drilling, lumbering, coal mining - sells millions of acres of public lands NEXT

  16. SECTION 2 Conservative Victories in 1984 and 1988 The Reagan Coalition • Reagan forges large coalition of diverse groups - businesspeople, Southerners, Westerners, Reagan Democrats The 1984 Presidential Election • Democrat Walter Mondale choosesGeraldine Ferraro as running mate - first woman on major party’s presidential ticket • Reagan, Bush win by landslide Continued . . . NEXT

  17. SECTION 2 continuedConservative Victories in 1984 and 1988 The 1988 Presidential Election • Most Americans economically comfortable - attribute comfort to Reagan, Bush • Republican candidate George Bushstresses conservatism - promises “no new taxes” • Gets 53% popular vote, 426 electoral votes - electoral victory seen as conservative mandate NEXT

  18. Section 3 Social Concerns in the 1980s NEXT

  19. SECTION Social Concerns in the 1980s 3 Health, Education, and Cities in Crisis Health Issues • AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome)caused by virus - destroys immune system, makes body prone to infections, cancer • 1980s, epidemic grows; increasing concern over prevention, cure Abortion • 1980s, battle over abortion intensifies - pro-life are against abortion; supporters are pro-choice • 1989, Supreme Court rules states may place restrictions on abortion Continued . . . NEXT

  20. SECTION 3 continuedHealth, Education, and Cities in Crisis Drug Abuse • Reagan administration prosecutes drug users, dealers • First Lady Nancy Reagan has “Just say no!” to drugs campaign Education • 1983 commission: U.S. students lag behind students in other nations • Bush initiative calls for using public money for school choice The Urban Crisis • 1992 riots in LA after officers taped allegedly beating Rodney King are found not guilty. • Officers were found to be following proper procedure – training was modified for officers. NEXT

  21. SECTION 3 The Equal Rights Struggle Political Losses and Gains • ERA not ratified by 1982; Reagan names 2 women to cabinet in 1983 • 1992, increased number of women elected to Congress Inequality • Women earn less than men; 31% female heads of household poor • • Pay equity—Degree to which the actual pay of an employee matches what he or she thinks to deserve. High pay equity means high employee satisfaction with his or her job, low pay equity increases the potential for absenteeism, grievances, strikes, and turnover. Also called pay satisfaction. NEXT

  22. SECTION 3 The Fight for Rights Continues African Americans • By mid-1980s, many cities have African-American mayors • Numerous communities elect blacks to local, state office, Congress • L. Douglas Wilderof Virginia is first African-American governor • Reverend Jesse Jacksonruns for Democratic presidential nomination • Middle-class blacks hold professional, managerial positions • Supreme Court limits affirmative action Continued . . . NEXT

  23. SECTION 3 continuedThe Fight for Rights Continues Gains for Latinos • Latinos fastest growing minority; some states elect Latino governors • Reagan appoints Lauro Cavazosas secretary of education • Bush names Dr. Antonia CoelloNovellosurgeon general • From 1968 bilingual education available; mid-1980s opposition rising Native Americans Speak Out • Native Americans say need money for health, education, services • Many tribes open casinos to bring in additional funds Continued . . . NEXT

  24. SECTION 3 continuedThe Fight for Rights Continues An Expanding Asian-American Population • Asian Americans second-fastest growing minority • Cited as example of success; also haveunemployment, poverty The Gay Rights Movement Advances • Movement suffers setbacks from opposition, as well as AIDS • Late 1980s new surge of activism, calls for end to discrimination • Some states, communities outlaw discrimination NEXT

  25. Section 4 Foreign Policy After the Cold War The end of the Cold War, marked by the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991, leads to a redirection of many U.S. goals and policies. NEXT

  26. SECTION Foreign Policy After the Cold War 4 The Cold War Ends Gorbachev Initiates Reform • Mikhail Gorbachev—general secretary of Soviet Communist Party • Soviet economy stressed; Reagan’s defense spending adds pressure • Gorbachev adopts glasnost—allows criticism, some freedom of press • Plans perestroika—some private enterprise, move to democracy • Wants better relations with U.S. to cut U.S.S.R. military spending - arms-control INF Treaty (Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty) Continued . . . NEXT

  27. SECTION 4 continuedThe Cold War Ends The Soviet Union Declines • 1991, 14 republics declare independence; Gorbachev forced to resign • Commonwealth of Independent States forms; 1993 START II signed The Collapse of Communist Regimes • Gorbachev reduces Soviet control of Eastern Europe, urges democracy • 1989, Berlin Wall torn down; 1990, 2 Germanys reunited • Czechoslovakia, Baltic states, Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania democratic • Ethnic civil war breaks out in Yugoslavia Continued . . . NEXT

  28. SECTION 4 continuedThe Cold War Ends Communism Continues in China • 1980s, China loosens business restrictions, stops price controls • Students demand free speech, voice in government • 1989, demonstrations in Beijing’s Tiananmen Square, other cities • Premier Li Peng orders military to crush protesters - unarmed students killed NEXT

  29. SECTION 4 Central American and Caribbean Policy Nicaragua • Sandinistas—rebel group, takes over Nicaragua; Carter sends them aid • Reagan calls them communists; helps Contras—opposition forces • 1990, Contra supporter Violeta de Chamorro elected president Grenada • 1983 Reagan sends troops; pro-Cuba government replaced with pro-U.S. Panama • Bush sends troops to arrest dictator Manuel Antonio Noriega • Noriega convicted of drug trafficking in U.S., sentenced to 40 years NEXT

  30. SECTION 4 Middle East Trouble Spots The Iran-Contra Scandal • 1983, terrorists loyal to Iran take Americans hostage in Lebanon • Reagan says no negotiating with terrorists; sells arms for hostages • Staff divert some profits to Contras; violate Boland Amendment • 1987, Congressional committees hold joint TV hearings • 1988, several staffers indicted; 1992, Bush pardons Reagan officials Continued . . . NEXT

  31. SECTION 4 continuedMiddle East Trouble Spots The Persian Gulf War • Iran-Iraq War leaves Saddam Hussein with great war debt - 1990, invades Kuwait to take its oil, threatens U.S. oil supply • Bush, Secretary of State James Baker organize international coalition • 1991, Operation Desert Stormliberates Kuwait from Iraq • Victory parades greet returning soldiers • Under 400 coalition casualties; 100,000 Iraqi deaths Continued . . . NEXT

  32. SECTION 4 continuedMiddle East Trouble Spots Bush’s Domestic Policies • Bush hurt by rising deficit, recession of 1990–1992 • Forced to raise taxes despite campaign promise, or try and cut back on spending (takes congressional approval to do though) • 1992, approval rating drops to 49% • Compare that to President Obama at 44.3% as of 5/11/2014. NEXT