The Conservative Backlash EQ: How did social change and conflict mark the 1920’s? What does this word mean?
The Klu Klux Klan as an Example of the Conservative Movement • Read the KKK’s application and manual from 1923 and then answer the following: • What were the requirements for becoming a Klansman? • What were the goals or purposes of the KKK?
The Rise of the Klu Klux Klan • A white-Protestant group • Vowed to defend the U.S. against all things un-Americans • Focus changed from AF AM to include Jews, Catholics, immigrants, Communists, etc
The Rise of the Klu Klux Klan • Klan membership spread throughout the country • At peak had 2 million members
Other Racial Strife • Summer of 1919 became known as “Red Summer” due to racial violence • Race riots in 25 cities • Chicago worst example • Lasted 13 days • 23 AF AM, 15 Whites killed and 537 wounded • Hundreds homeless due to destruction • In 1922 alone, 55 known cases of lynching
Young versus Old • The 1920’s was full of disagreements between the young and old…what are some today?
Challenges to Religion • The many different changes in society began to challenge traditional Christian beliefs as well • Consumerism and Increasing Wealth • Industrialization and Urbanization • Influence of Science and Technology • Changes in societal roles and culture
Challenges to Religion • But two new beliefs directly challenged Christianity • The scholarly interpretation of the Bible • Darwin’s Theory of Evolution
Scholarly Interpretation of the Bible • Suggests Bible is: • A document written by man • Collections of writings over time • Full of contradictions
Darwin’s Theory of Evolution • Evolution through ‘natural selection’ • Species evolves over period of time • Species has feature that enables it to survive, passes feature to offspring • Suggests humans evolved from apes
Modernism Non-traditional values and beliefs Attempt to adapt religious beliefs to times See change as progress Fundamentalism Traditional values and beliefs Did not adapt religious beliefs to times See change as negative The Split in Christianity
The Fundamentalists • Fundamentalist preachers became cultural icons and gained huge followings • Aimee McPherson • Billy Sunday
The Scopes Trial • Led by Fundamentalists, Tennessee passed Butler Act (1925) • Prohibit teaching evolution in school • Declare unlawful to teach: “…any theory that denies the story of the divine creation of man as taught in the Bible,..”
The Scopes Trial • John T. Scopes agreed to ‘test’ the new law • Using a state-approved textbook, Scopes taught lesson on evolutionary theory
The Scopes Trial • Was arrested two weeks later • Scopes was quickly indicted to the grand jury
The Scopes Trial • The Scopes Trial began with the ACLU (American Civil Liberties Union) defending Scopes • Clarence Darrow defended Scopes • William Jennings Bryan defended the state • The trial soon became a media circus!