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  1. Final Exam Review Chapters 16 & 17 Homan, American Cultures, Key Concepts

  2. Why did new democracies set up after WWI fail? • A lack of democratic tradition; • the Treaty of Versailles caused anger and resentment; • Economic devastation of Europe. Homan, American Cultures, Key Concepts

  3. What are the characteristics of a totalitarian state? • Complete control over citizens; • Ruthless suppression of opposition. Fascist Italy – Benito Mussolini Nazi Germany – Adolf Hitler Communist Soviet Union – Josef Stalin Fascist Spain – Francisco Franco Homan, American Cultures, Key Concepts

  4. What law did America’s Congress pass to maintain its foreign policy of isolationism? • Neutrality Acts • Outlawed arm sales or loans to warring nations; • Banned arm sales to nations engaged in civil war. Homan, American Cultures, Key Concepts

  5. What actions did Japanese militarists take in the 1930s that alarmed Americans? • The surprise attack of Chinese province of Manchuria rich in natural resources and “living space.” Homan, American Cultures, Key Concepts

  6. What was the name of the treaty that ended World War I? • Treaty of Versailles Homan, American Cultures, Key Concepts

  7. Why did the German people hate the treaty? • War-Guilt Clause (humiliation) • Great economic depression • Massive war reparations • High unemployment • Loss of territory & colonial possessions • Reduction of military forces Homan, American Cultures, Key Concepts

  8. What country did Britain and France allow Hitler to take because of the policy of appeasement? • Czechoslovakia • What country did Hitler attack that finally forced Britain and France to declare war? • Poland Homan, American Cultures, Key Concepts

  9. What was appeasement, and why did Churchill oppose it so strongly? • An attempt to do whatever was necessary to pacify Hitler; • Churchill saw this as an abandonment of moral principles that would lead to war and a national disaster. Homan, American Cultures, Key Concepts

  10. What was the Battle of Britain? • Aerial defense of Great Britain from pending German invasion; • Britain now stood alone against the German onslaught. Homan, American Cultures, Key Concepts

  11. Describe the non-aggression pact. • Commitment by fascist Germany and communist Soviet Union never to attack one another; • Divided Poland between the two dictators; • Allowed Hitler to concentrate on a one-front war. Homan, American Cultures, Key Concepts

  12. How did Roosevelt help the Allies? • America becomes the “Great Arsenal of Democracy” by lending or leasing arms and other supplies “to any country whose defense was vital to the United States.” Homan, American Cultures, Key Concepts

  13. How did Germany prevent American goods from reaching Great Britain? • U-boats attacking in wolf packs What does the US do to deal with this threat? • Convoy System including: • Use of sonar and radar • Airborne patrols • Armed destroyers Homan, American Cultures, Key Concepts

  14. Why was the Atlantic Charter important? • It set forth the war aims of the Allies. Homan, American Cultures, Key Concepts

  15. What does WAAC stand for and what was the function of its members? • Women’s Auxiliary Army Corps • Noncombat positions • Nurses • Ambulance drivers • Radio operators • Electricians • Pilots Homan, American Cultures, Key Concepts

  16. Describe the significance of the Battle of Stalingrad. • 1,100,000 Soviet soldiers killed (more than all American deaths in war) • Marks turning point • Germany now in retreat Homan, American Cultures, Key Concepts

  17. What basic problems were the Office of Price Administration (OPA) & War Production Board (WPA) created to solve? • Controlling inflation • Managing shortages • Making sure that the armed forces and war industries got the resources they needed. Homan, American Cultures, Key Concepts

  18. What attack precipitated America’s entry into WWII? • The Japanese attack on the US Naval base at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. Homan, American Cultures, Key Concepts

  19. Who was the American commander of the Allied campaigns in North Africa and Europe? • Dwight D. Eisenhower Homan, American Cultures, Key Concepts

  20. Who was the American commander of US forces fighting the Japanese in the Pacific? • Douglas MacArthur Homan, American Cultures, Key Concepts

  21. What was the Manhattan Project? • The top-secret American development of the atomic bomb. Homan, American Cultures, Key Concepts

  22. Why did Truman use the A-Bomb against Japan? • Viewed the bomb as a military weapon • Force unconditional surrender • Limit US killed & wounded Homan, American Cultures, Key Concepts

  23. What act of Congress allowed returning veterans to go to college for free? • GI Bill of Rights • Education and training • Home, farm , or new business loans Homan, American Cultures, Key Concepts

  24. What caused the race riots in the 1940s? • Discrimination; • Racism; • the concentration of minorities in cities. Homan, American Cultures, Key Concepts

  25. Why did President Roosevelt order the internment of Japanese Americans? • Because some Americans perceived them as a threat to national security. Homan, American Cultures, Key Concepts