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Hazard Identification and Control. Trainer note: You have permission to make changes to this workbook file for your own personal use. You may make copies for personal use. You may not use this file for resale or other commercial purposes. (Remove this notice before you use the file ;-) .
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Hazard Identification and Control Trainer note: You have permission to make changes to this workbook file for your own personal use. You may make copies for personal use. You may not use this file for resale or other commercial purposes. (Remove this notice before you use the file ;-) Welcome!
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Workshop goals • Explore the elements of an effective hazard identification and control program. • Discuss the steps in the hazard identification and control process. • Complete the hazard identification and control worksheet.
IDENTIFYING HAZARDS It takes a hazard and someone exposed to the hazard to produce an accident. Hazard + Exposurea Accident
What is a "hazard?" Complete the sentence below. nsafe ondition ractice njury llness mployee reventable
What is “Exposure?” • How close are you to the "danger zone"? • Physical exposure - generally arm’s length • Environmental exposure - could be everyone in facility.
Conditions and behaviors are just the symptoms • They are specific: if you can point to a person or a thing, it's a surface symptom • They may exist or be performed by anyone, anytime, anywhere • They may directly cause or contribute to an incident or accident • They likely represent the outputs of a flawed safety management system • They are important clues revealing root causes
3 • Conditions account for _____ % of all workplace accidents. • Behaviors account for _____ % of all workplace accidents. • Uncontrollable acts account for ____ % of all workplace accidents. 95 2 Conclusion: Management has some degree of control over 98% of the causes for all accidents in the workplace!
The underlying root causes must be diagnosed and treated! • System Design Defects - Missing or inadequate program development • One or more inadequate policies, plans, programs, processes, procedures, practices • Inadequate resources - money, time, people, materials, etc. • Assures inadequate implementation of the safety management system • Have the greatest positive or negative impact on the safety management system
System Performance Defects - Failure to accomplish action plans • Managers, supervisors, or employees fail to effectively carry out safety policies, plans, processes, procedures or management practices • They produce common hazardous conditions and/or unsafe behaviors, or • They produce repeated unique hazardous conditions and/or unsafe behaviors
Four Important Processes to Identify and Analyze Hazards 1 Inspections • How to develop an effective safety and health checklist. • Determine applicable state safety & health rules for the workplace. • Review rules and use those you feel apply to your workplace. • Develop applicable checklist questions that are not addressed in the rules.
Who's involved in the inspection process? What is a major weakness inherent in the inspection process? What process(es) can we use to overcome this weakness?
2 Observation • Observations, informal and formal, are quite important in daily workplace safety. • Employees and managers can spot hazardous conditions and unsafe or inappropriate behaviors while they conduct their other tasks.
Writing Effective Inspection Reports • 1. The Background/Introduction • 2. The Findings • 3. The Recommendations • 4. The Conclusion/Summary
Report Identified Hazards • Watch your language. Examples? • Keep it simple. How? • Reward appropriate performance. Which? • How can wemost effectively recognize employees for reporting hazards?
3 • The Job Hazard Analysis • The process... • Break a job or task into specific steps. • Analyze each step for specific hazardous conditions and unsafe practices. • Develop preventive measures in each step to eliminate or reduce the hazards. • Integrate preventive measures into training and standard operating procedures (SOP’s).
4 Incident/Accident Analysis The six-step process What are the basic steps for conducting an accident investigation? Secure the scene Collect facts Gather Information
The six-step process What are the basic steps for conducting an accident investigation? Secure the scene Collect facts Gather Information Develop sequence Determine causes Analyze The Facts
The six-step process What are the basic steps for conducting an accident investigation? Secure the scene Collect facts Gather Information Develop sequence Determine causes Analyze The Facts Recommendations Write the report Implement Solutions
Be ready when accidents happen • 1. Write a clear policy statement. • Identify those authorized to notify outside agencies • 3. Designate those responsible to investigate. • 4. Train all accident investigators. • 5. Establish timetables for conducting the investigation and taking corrective action. • 6. Identify those who will receive the report and take corrective action.
Inspect to identify potential accidents Struck-by Struck-against Contact-by Contact-with Caught-on Caught-in Caught-between Fall-To-surface Fall-To-below Over-exertion Bodily reaction Over-exposure
Weed out the causes of injuries and accidents Direct Cause of Injury Surface Causes Root Causes
Direct Cause of injury-A harmful transfer of energy that produces injury or illness. • Surface Causes of accident - Specifichazardous conditions or unsafe behaviors that result in an accident. • Root Causes of the accident - Common behaviors and conditions that ultimately result in an accident.
Analyze to Determine Risk • Probability • Unlikely to Certain • Severity • Other than serious - • Serious physical harm - • Death -
Factors that increase risk • The number of employees exposed; • The frequency and duration of exposure; • The proximity of employees to the point of danger; • Potential severity of the injury or illness • Factors that require work under stress; • Factors that increase severity; • Lack of proper training and supervision or improper workplace design; or • Other factors which may significantly affect the degree of probability of an accident occurring.
CONTROLLING HAZARDS Hazard + Exposure a Accident • 1. Engineering Controls - design tools, equipment, machinery, materials, facilities
Hazard + Exposurea Accident • 2. Management Controls - Attempt to limit exposure to hazards.
Why are engineering controls considered superior to management controls?
Control hazards with effective education and training • When is it important to train employees? • How do we know safety education and training has been effective?
If it isn’t in writing…it didn’t get done… • DOCUMENT SAFETY TRAINING! • Sample training certification for specific tasks • Trainee certification • Trainer certification • Supervisor validation
Personal Protective Equipment • What might be some of the drawbacks of reliance solely on PPE to protect workers? • Interim measures
Effective Maintenance Processes • Two equipment maintenance programs • 1. Preventive Maintenanceto make sure equipment and machinery runs safely and smoothly. • 2. Corrective Maintenanceto make sure equipment gets back into safe service quickly. • How can we make sure corrective maintenance is completed quickly?
Plan evaluation Team Exercise: Discuss the processes your organization uses to evaluate the safety management system.
Continual improvement Consider how the change you propose will impact elements of the safety management system.
Safety management systems include critical elements: • 1. Management Commitment • 2. Accountability • 3. Employee Involvement • Hazard Identification and Control • 5. Incident/Accident Investigation • 6. Education and Training • 7. Plan Evaluation
Successful change requires effective design and performance Continual feedback Adopt, abandon, or revise program as needed Plan and develop improvements Implement improvements Monitor process Plan Do Study Act What will happen if a change is not carefully designed or carried out effectively?
THE ANALYSIS WORKSHEET Team Exercise: View photos and use the worksheet below to determine hazards, system weaknesses, accident types and costs, probability/severity, corrective actions and system improvement. • Hazard Analysis Worksheet • Describe the Hazard: • Possible Accident Type(s): • Accident Cost Estimates: • Risk: • Recommended Corrective Action(s): • Recommended System Improvement(s): • Benefits:
FINAL EXAM! You must pass this test to receive credit for this class. Just follow these instructions, and answer the questions one at a time and as quickly as you can!
If the number is a 2-digit number. Add the digits together. Subtract 5 from that number.
Determine which letter in the alphabet corresponds to the number you ended up with. (example: 1=a, 2=b, 3=c, etc.)
Think of a country that starts with that letter.Remember the last letter of the name of that country.
Think of the name of an animal that starts with that letter.Remember the last letter in the name of that animal.