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Hazard Control. IENG 331, Safety Engineering Fall 2005. Assignment. Read Chapter 9 from Brauer Text Study the review questions. Hazards. IDENTIFICATION (RECOGNITION) EVALUATION CONTROL Hazards must be attacked in this order . Murphy’s Law.

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Hazard Control

IENG 331, Safety Engineering

Fall 2005


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Assignment

  • Read Chapter 9 from Brauer Text

  • Study the review questions


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Hazards

  • IDENTIFICATION (RECOGNITION)

  • EVALUATION

  • CONTROL

    Hazards must be attacked in this order


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Murphy’s Law

  • In spite of one’s best efforts to prevent undesirable events, errors, and misunderstandings, accidents will occur.

  • Whatever can possibly go wrong, will.

  • Attributed to Captain Ed Murphy, Air Force Engineer (see text)


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Murphy’s Law

  • Our goal in Safety Engineering is to prevent fulfillment of Murphy’s Law

  • Through planning, design, and analysis, factors that contribute to accidents can be eliminated or reduced


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What is a Hazard?

  • A condition or changing set of circumstances that presents a potential for injury, illness, or property damage


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What is Hazard Control?

  • Any means of eliminating or reducing the risk resulting from a hazard


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Hazard Sources

  • Planning & Design

  • Production & Distribution

  • Maintenance & Repair

  • Communication


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Hazard Sources –Planning & Design

  • Usually inadvertently, unknowingly, or unintentionally, engineers or planners may create hazards in sites, buildings, facilities, equipment, operations, and environments

  • Computational errors, poor assumptions, converting units of measure, improper safety factors

  • Sky Light example


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Sources of Hazards –Production & Distribution

  • Potential unforeseen changes between design and construction

  • Substitution of materials or fasteners

  • Substitution of chemicals

  • Poor packaging


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Sources of Hazards –Maintenance & Repair

  • Insufficient, delayed, improper maintenance

  • Equipment or operations may be well designed for normal use, but no design consideration was given for installation, maintenance, housekeeping

    • LOTO – Lock Out Tag Out

    • Preventative Maintenance, 5S


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Preventative Maintenance, 5S

  • 5S philosophy focuses on effective workplace organization and standardized work procedures. It simplifies your work environment, reduces waste and non-value activity while improving quality, efficiency, and safety.

  • “All I Really Need to Know I Learned in Kindergarten”, Robert Fulghum

  • Sort (Seiri) – eliminate unnecessary items from the workplace; red-tag items and move out


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5S Continues

2. Set in order (Seiton) – efficient & effective storage methods; painting floors; outlining work areas & locations; shadow boards; modular shelving & cabinets; “A place for everything and everything in its place”

  • What do I need to do my job?

  • Where should I locate this item?

  • How many of this item do I really need?

    3. Shine (Seiso) – Thoroughly clean the work area; daily follow-up cleaning


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5S Continued

4. Standardize (Seiketsu) – Standardize best practice in your work area; allow employee participation in development

5. Sustain (Shitsuke) – Focus on defining a new status quo and standard of workplace organization; Don’t revert to old ways


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Sources of Hazards –Communication

  • Changes in design, operations, procedures are not communicated adequately to those impacted

  • Consider the four components of communication

    • Sender

    • Medium

    • Message

    • Receiver

  • The gulf between the sender and receiver can be great


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Principles of Hazard Control

  • Identification

  • Evaluation

  • Control

    • Engineering Controls

    • Administrative Controls

    • Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)


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Knowledge & Recognition of Hazards

  • No one person can be fully knowledgeable about all hazards

  • Several disciplines must work together

  • Take a systems approach, understand the context

    • Human

    • Machine

    • Materials

    • Environment


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Hazard Control Priorities

  • Eliminate the hazard (engineering)

  • Reduce the hazard level (engineering or administrative)

  • Provide safety devices (engineering or administrative)

  • Provide warnings (administrative)

  • Provide safety procedures (administrative)

  • Provide PPE


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Reducing Hazards

  • Redundancy

    • 2 or more parallel subsystems or components

    • Backup systems or contingency plans

  • Single Point Failure

    • A single component or subsystem that can bring down the entire system

    • Example: Dead car battery

    • Search for and eliminate


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Safety Devices

  • Features or controls that prevent people from being exposed to a hazard

  • Must be automatic

  • They do not remove the hazard

  • Examples

    • Machine guards

    • Fail-safe devices (e.g., automatic fire doors, dead man switch, air brakes on truck trailers)


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Fail-Safe Devices

  • Fail-Passive

    • Reduces system to its lowest energy level

    • Circuit breaker, fuse, deadman switch

  • Fail-Active

    • Keep system energized, but in a “safe mode”

    • Battery-operated smoke alarm chirps when low

    • Traffic signal blinks yellow or red on malfunction

  • Fail-Operational

    • Allows the system to function safely even when the device fails (e.g. aircraft auto-land controls)


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Provide Warnings

  • How effective are Warnings? See previous lecture.


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Procedures

  • Sets of actions that must be executed

  • People must learn to use safe procedures

  • Must be developed and understood before they are used

  • Safety procedures are just as important as operational procedures


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