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Hazard Control. IENG 331, Safety Engineering Fall 2009. Assignment. Read Chapter 9 from Brauer Text Do the odd numbered Review Questions P. 109 Due: ?. Hazards. IDENTIFICATION (RECOGNITION) EVALUATION CONTROL Hazards must be attacked in this order .

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hazard control

Hazard Control

IENG 331, Safety Engineering

Fall 2009

  • Read Chapter 9 from Brauer Text
  • Do the odd numbered Review Questions
    • P. 109
    • Due: ?

Hazards must be attacked in this order

murphy s law whatever possibly can go wrong will
Murphy’s Law: “Whatever Possibly Can Go Wrong, Will”
  • In spite of one’s best efforts to prevent undesirable events, errors, and misunderstandings, accidents will occur.
  • Attributed to Captain Ed Murphy
    • Air Force Engineer, 1949
    • Conducted crash tests
    • Found a strain gage bridge wired incorrectly
    • “If there is any way the technician can do it wrong, he will”
    • His team then adopted this law as a challenge and achieved an excellent safety record
    • Murphy’s Law has become a commonly used expression
safety engineering corollaries of murphy s law block murphy s law 1980
Safety Engineering Corollaries of Murphy’s Law (Block, Murphy’s Law . . ., 1980)
  • A car and truck approaching each other on an otherwise deserted road will meet at the narrow bridge
  • Hindsight is an exact science
  • Only God can make a random selection
  • When all else fails, read the directions
  • Any system that depends on human reliability is unreliable
  • If a test installation functions perfectly, all subsequent systems will malfunction
  • In any calculation, any error which can creep in will do so. Any error in any calculation will be in the direction of most harm.
  • A fail-safe circuit will destroy others
  • A failure will not appear until a unit has passed final inspection
murphy s law as a safety concept
Murphy’s Law as a Safety Concept
  • Our goal in Safety Engineering is to prevent fulfillment of Murphy’s Law
  • Through planning, design, and analysis, factors that contribute to accidents can be eliminated or reduced
  • Even though Murphy’s Law sounds pessimistic, it is a motivating safety concept
what is a hazard
What is a Hazard?
  • A condition or changing set of circumstances that presents a potential for injury, illness, or property damage
what is hazard control
What is Hazard Control?
  • Any means of eliminating or reducing the risk resulting from a hazard
hazard sources
Hazard Sources
  • Planning & Design
  • Production & Distribution
  • Maintenance & Repair
  • Communication
hazard sources planning design
Hazard Sources –Planning & Design
  • Usually inadvertently, unknowingly, or unintentionally, engineers or planners may create hazards in sites, buildings, facilities, equipment, operations, and environments
  • Computational errors, poor assumptions, converting units of measure, improper safety factors
  • Sky Light example
sources of hazards production distribution
Sources of Hazards –Production & Distribution
  • Potential unforeseen changes between design and construction
  • Substitution of materials or fasteners
  • Substitution of chemicals
  • Poor packaging
sources of hazards maintenance repair
Sources of Hazards –Maintenance & Repair
  • Insufficient, delayed, improper maintenance
  • Equipment or operations may be well designed for normal use, but no design consideration was given for installation, maintenance, housekeeping
    • LOTO – Lock Out Tag Out
    • Preventative Maintenance, 5S
preventative maintenance 5s
Preventative Maintenance, 5S
  • 5S philosophy focuses on effective workplace organization and standardized work procedures. It simplifies your work environment, reduces waste and non-value activity while improving quality, efficiency, and safety.
  • “All I Really Need to Know I Learned in Kindergarten”, Robert Fulghum
  • Sort (Seiri) – eliminate unnecessary items from the workplace; red-tag items and move out
5s continues
5S Continues

2. Set in order (Seiton) – efficient & effective storage methods; painting floors; outlining work areas & locations; shadow boards; modular shelving & cabinets; “A place for everything and everything in its place”

  • What do I need to do my job?
  • Where should I locate this item?
  • How many of this item do I really need?

3. Shine (Seiso) – Thoroughly clean the work area; daily follow-up cleaning

5s continued
5S Continued

4. Standardize (Seiketsu) – Standardize best practice in your work area; allow employee participation in development

  • Sustain (Shitsuke) – Focus on defining a new status quo and standard of workplace organization; Don’t revert to old ways
  • Sometimes a 6th “S” is added to represent “Safety”
sources of hazards communication
Sources of Hazards – Communication
  • Changes in design, operations, procedures are not communicated adequately to those impacted
  • Consider the four components of communication
    • Sender
    • Medium
    • Message
    • Receiver
  • The gulf between the sender and receiver can be great
principles of hazard control
Principles of Hazard Control
  • Identification
  • Evaluation
  • Control
    • Engineering Controls
    • Administrative Controls
    • Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
knowledge recognition of hazards
Knowledge & Recognition of Hazards
  • No one person can be fully knowledgeable about all hazards
  • Several disciplines and people must work together
  • Take a systems approach, understand the context
    • Human
    • Machine
    • Materials
    • Environment
  • Historical Approach (see next slide)
  • See OSHA Website: Statistics
hazard control priorities
Hazard Control Priorities
  • Eliminate the hazard (engineering)
  • Reduce the hazard level (engineering or administrative)
  • Provide safety devices (engineering or administrative)
  • Provide warnings (administrative)
  • Provide safety procedures (administrative)
  • Provide PPE (PPE)
reducing hazards
Reducing Hazards
  • Redundancy
    • 2 or more parallel subsystems or components
    • Backup systems or contingency plans
  • Single Point Failure
    • A single component or subsystem that can bring down the entire system
    • Example: Dead car battery
    • Search for and eliminate
safety devices
Safety Devices
  • Features or controls that prevent people from being exposed to a hazard
  • Must be automatic
  • They do not remove the hazard
  • Examples
    • Machine guards
    • Fail-safe devices (e.g., automatic fire doors, dead man switch, air brakes on truck trailers and railcars)
fail safe devices
Fail-Safe Devices
  • Fail-Passive
    • Reduces system to its lowest energy level
    • Circuit breaker, fuse, dead man switch
  • Fail-Active
    • Keep system energized, but in a “safe mode”
    • Battery-operated smoke alarm chirps when low
    • Traffic signal blinks yellow or red on malfunction
  • Fail-Operational
    • Allows the system to function safely even when the device fails (e.g. aircraft auto-land controls)
provide warnings
Provide Warnings
  • How effective are Warnings? See previous lecture.
  • Sets of actions that must be executed
  • People must learn to use safe procedures
  • Must be developed and understood before they are used
  • Safety procedures are just as important as operational procedures
  • Read Chapter 9 from Brauer Text
  • Do the odd numbered Review Questions
    • P. 109
    • Due: ?