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Birds. Chapter 42. Origin and Evolution of Birds. Section 42.1. Important characteristics. Feathers – only birds have them! Wings – modified forelimbs Lightweight, rigid skeleton – hollow bones Endothermic metabolism – 104-106 o F Unique respiratory system – most efficient

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birds

Birds

Chapter 42

important characteristics
Important characteristics
  • Feathers – only birds have them!
  • Wings – modified forelimbs
  • Lightweight, rigid skeleton – hollow bones
  • Endothermic metabolism – 104-106o F
  • Unique respiratory system – most efficient
  • Beak – no teeth
  • Oviparity – eggs incubated by parents
evolution
Evolution
  • Similarities to dinosaurs:
    • Flexible, S-shaped neck
    • Unique ankle joint
    • Hollow bones
  • Birds evolved from small, fast-running carnivorous dinosaurs
  • Oldest bird fossil - Archaeopteryx
archaeopteryx
Archaeopteryx
  • Jurassic period – 150 million years ago
  • Similar to modern birds because:
    • Hollow bones
    • Furcula: fused collarbone (aka wishbone)
    • Feathers
  • Similar to dinosaurs because:
    • Teeth
    • Claws on forelimb
    • Long, boney tail
origin of flight
Origin of flight

Video

  • Two major hypotheses:
  • Ancestors were tree dwellers that ran along branches and jumped from tree to tree, gliding wings first evolved then the ability to flap came later.
  • Ancestors were land dwellers that leapt after their prey, wings served to trap or knock down prey and over time became large enough to fly.
feathers
Feathers
  • Modified scales
  • Two main functions:
    • Provide lift for flight
    • Conserve body heat
  • Types of feathers:
    • Down feathers – insulation
    • Contour feathers – streamline shape, coloration, insulation
    • Flight feathers – on wings and tail for flight
structure of the feather
Structure of the feather
  • Follicles: tiny pits that feather develops from
  • Rachis (Shaft): emerges from the follicle
  • Vanes: 2 vanes on opposite side of shaft
  • Barbs: branches of the vane
  • Barbules: projections on the barbs with microscopic hooks
  • Keratin: protein that makes up the feather
care of feathers
Care of feathers
  • Preening: use beak to rub feathers with oil secreted by the preen gland at the base of the tail.
  • Molting or shedding of feathers periodically
skeleton muscles
Skeleton & Muscles
  • Thin, hollow bones fused together
  • Sternum: breastbone is attachment point for flight muscles
  • Pygostyle: last fused vertebrae that supports the tail feathers
  • Flight muscles account for 50% of bird’s weight
metabolism
Metabolism
  • Endothermic therefore require large quantities of food to generate heat
  • Aquatic birds have a layer of fat to insulate
  • Cannot go through long periods of time without food
digestive excretory systems
Digestive & Excretory Systems
  • Path of food:mouth  esophagus  crop  2-part stomach (proventriculus & gizzard)  small intenstine with bile from liver  large intestine  cloaca  vent
  • Path of wastes:blood  kidneys  ureters  cloaca (mixes with feces)  vent
respiratory system
Respiratory System
  • Highly efficient
  • Path of air:nostrils  trachea  branched bronchi  lungs (25%) or air sacs (75%)
  • Air sacs:
    • 9 total
    • Stores excess air
    • Allows for oxygenated air in lungs during exhale and inhale
circulatory system
Circulatory System
  • Rapid heartbeat
    • Up to 1000 beats per minute!
  • 4 chambered heart
    • Like mammals
nervous system sense organs
Nervous System & Sense Organs
  • Large brains (relative to body size)
  • Some birds have color vision and/or binocular vision
  • Some birds have a developed sense of smell
  • Sense of hearing also important
reproduction
Reproduction
  • Sperm movement: testies  vasa deferentia  cloaca  female’s cloaca
  • Egg movement:ovary  oviduct  fertilized by sperm  addition of shell  cloaca  vent
nest building parental care
Nest Building & Parental Care
  • Lay eggs in nest
  • Methods of rearing young:
    • Precocial: active as soon as hatch
    • Atricial: helpless when born
  • One or both parents incubate eggs by sitting on them and covering them with theirbrood patch
    • Thickened, featherless patch of skin on abdomen
migration

Video

Migration
  • Seasonal movement of birds from one habitat to another
  • Cues to help navigate:
    • Position of sun and stars
    • Topographical landmarks
    • Magnetic field
    • Air pressure
  • Ornithologist: biologist that study birds
diversity
Diversity
  • Beak and claws infer diet and habitat
  • Most widespread terrestrial animal on planet
  • 23 orders of birds
order anseriformes
Order Anseriformes
  • Examples: swans, geese, and ducks
  • Aquatic
  • Webbed feet
  • Flattened bill
  • Precocial young, care by female
order strigiformes
Order Strigiformes
  • Examples: owls & nocturnal raptors
  • Sharp, curved beak
  • Sharp talons
  • Keen sense of hearing to detect prey
order apodiformes
Order Apodiformes
  • Examples: hummingbirds & swifts
  • Small, fast-flying
  • Tiny feet
  • Long, narrow beak
order psittaciformes
Order Psittaciformes
  • Examples: parrots, parakeets, macaws, cockatoos, & cockatiels
  • Live in the tropics
  • Strong, hooked beak for opening seeds
  • Two toes forward, two toes backward for climbing & perching
  • Highly vocal
order picformes
Order Picformes
  • Examples: woodpeckers & toucans
  • Nest in tree cavities
  • Diversity of bills based upon diet
  • Same feet as parrots
order passeriformes
Order Passeriformes
  • Examples: familiar birds (robins, blue jays, cardinals, etc)
  • perching birds: 3 toes forward, 1 toe backward
  • songbirds:males produce songs to attract mate and warn away other males
    • Syrinx produces sound at base of trachea
order columbiformes
Order Columbiformes
  • Examples: pigeons & doves
  • Plump-breasted, small heads
  • Short neck, legs, and beak
  • Crop secretes nutritious milk-like fluid to feed young
    • Crop milk
order ciconiiformes
Order Ciconiiformes
  • Examples: herons, storks, raptors, & penguins
  • World-wide distribution
    • Habitat determines adaptations
  • Many are wading birds
order galliformes
Order Galliformes
  • Examples: turkeys, pheasants, chickens, grouse, & quail
  • Fowl
  • Terrestrial birds
  • Plump-bodies with limited flying ability
order struthioniformes
Order Struthioniformes
  • Examples: ostriches & emus
  • World’s largest birds
  • Reduction in toe number to allow for fast running