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Reconstruction “A Second Civil War”
What would you do? • Analyzing the Post War situation, what is the wisest course of action to take?
Lincoln’s Plan • “Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction 1863” • Very Lenient plan. Must except emancipation and take oath • Wanted support of Southern Unionists • 10% Plan-of voters from 1860 election • Swear allegiance to union • Pardon all Confederates • Except high ranking officers and those who were accused of crimes against Prisoners of War, confederate government officials • Blacks were excluded from vote, couldn’t vote in 1860
Lincoln’s Plan • 10% of voters (1860 election) from states took oath-allowed 4 states back in • Arkansas, Louisiana, Tennessee and Virginia-congress refused to seat their delegates • Radical Republican opposed, led by Sumner (MA) and Stevens (PA) • Congress passed, over Lincoln, Wade-Davis bill-military governor rule each state • Half eligible voters take oath-state convention to repeal secession
Lincoln’s Plan • Only eligible voter or delegate if you took “ironclad” oath stating you never supported confederacy-would have made readmission impossible • Congress outraged by Lincoln’ pocket veto-ok, ok…I’ll be tougher on them
The Martyr by Herman Melville • GOOD Friday was the dayOf the prodigy and crime,When they killed him in his pity,When they killed him in his primeOf clemency and calm--When with yearning he was filledTo redeem the evil-willed,And, though conqueror, be kind;But they killed him in his kindness,In their madness and their blindness,And they killed him from behind. • There is sobbing of the strong,And a pall upon the land;But the People in their weepingBare the iron hand:Beware the People weepingWhen they bare the iron hand.
The Martyr • He lieth in his blood--The father in his face;They have killed him, the Forgiver--The Avenger takes his place,The Avenger wisely stern,Who in righteousness shall doWhat the heavens call him to,And the parricides remand;For they killed him in his kindness,In their madness and their blindness,And his blood is on their hand. • There is sobbing of the strong,And a pall upon the land;But the People in their weepingBare the iron hand:Beware the People weepingWhen they bare the iron hand.
Johnson’s Plan • Break Planter’s power • Self-educated, hated rich southerners • Johnson was a poor southerner (Tailor) • If you pledge allegiance, pardoned • Accept 13th Amendment • Exclude high ranking confederates and disqualified planters who owned land over $20,000 • Pardon 13,000 confederates liberally-Wrote to him personally • “White men should still managed south”-Poor whites in control • 7 more states, all but Texas, would have been excepted • Return to antebellum south, “Black codes”
Congressional Reconstruction • Wanted to go further than both plans suggested • Didn’t see Eye to Eye with Presidents’ plans • Shift power from Executive to Congressional • Didn’t like Johnson Politically-He Was a DEMOCRAT • Election of 1866-Mid term-Radical Republicans got more power • Civil rights Act of 1866 • Included in the Civil Rights Act were the rights to: make contracts, sue, bear witness in court and own private property • Citizenship and forbade discrimination laws “black codes”
Congressional Plan • Johnson vetoed both, congress overturned • Congress passed 14th Amendment-protection/citizenship • Reconstruction act of 1867-did not recognize state governments-except Tennessee • Divided into 5 military districts • States had to be grant 13th and 14th Amendments before returning to Union-Johnson tried to Veto
Impeachmentof President Johnson • 2 attempts • First collection of problems with him-didn’t pass House • Second • Angry over blocking of Reconstruction legislation • Looking for grounds for impeachment • Tenure of Office Act-Edwin Stanton Sect. of War • Wanted to Replace with Grant • Fired without Senate’s approval-Didn’t want all of Lincoln’s appointees replaced • House Impeached/Senate did not convict or remove • Didn’t want to set a precedent
Reconstructing Reconstruction • Based on the primary sources you have read, do you believe that Reconstruction was a success or failure? Please be prepared to explain your answer.
Politics of the Gilded Age “Era of Good Stealings”
Election of 1868 • 1868-Grant (R) elected, barely • 1870-Radicals pass 15th Amendment-Right to Vote • Northerners are more interested in getting beyond sectional conflicts then the “Southern Question”
Election of 1868 • Candidates • Horatio Seymour (NY Gov) ran for democrats • Grant ran on popularity-aligned w/ Radical Republicans • Popular vote very close, won most states
First Term • Domestic • Grantism came to mean fraud, corruption • Big Business had a great deal of influence-oil industries • Foreign Policy • Support for Seward’s folly and ice box-7.2 Million for Biggest State-Alaska • Tried to annex Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic-Congress would not go along
Election of 1872-”Anything But Grant” • Radical Republicans split, Charles Sumner in lead • Worried about Grantism at home and abroad “burden of the party” • Formed “liberal republicans” • Some did turnaround-Reconstruction is finished “bayonet rule” • Bring about civil service reform-bring best men into government • Corruption was a bigger threat to the nation than confederate resurgence • Radicals supported Greeley who wanted leniency for ex-confeds but strict reconstruction policies
Panic of 1873 • The most serious down turn in the economy that the country had ever seen to date. It was one of a series of economic crises in the 19tha and 20th centuries. • Causes: • Touched off by-September 18, 1873 when the Philadelphia banking firm Jay Cooke and Co. closed its doors and declared bankruptcy • The railroad industry, at the time the nation’s largest employer outside of agriculture, involved large amount s of money and risk • Cooke’s firm provided the financing • But on Sept. 18th, the firm realized it had become overextended and declared bankruptcy. • Domino effect caused the economy of US to collapse
Panic of 1873 • A large infusion of cash from speculators caused abnormal growth in industry. • Cooke’s firm, like man others, were heavily invested in the railroads • Cooke and other entrepreneurs had planned to build a second transcontinental railroad, called the Northern Pacific Railway (Golden Spike, UTAH)
Panic of 1873 • NYSE closed for 10 days • Of country’s 364 railroads, 89 went bankrupt • A total of 18,000 businesses failed between 1873 and 1875 • Unemployment reached 14% • Effect-Depression itself lifted in spring of 1879, the end of the crisis coincided with the beginning of the great wave of immigration into the United States which would last until the early 1920’s.
Election of 1876-Beginning of the End • Hayes (Gov. of Ohio) nominated • Moderate on Southern Policy • Sam Tilden (Gov. of NJ) • Common-fiscal conservatives (sound money) • Civil service reform
Election of 1876-”RutherFRAUD” B. Hayes • Outcome • Compromise of 1877 • Tilden won popular vote-Not enough Electoral votes • Challenged returns in SC and FL and LA • Demos-challenged Oregon • Republicans still controlled machinery
Death of Reconstruction • Grant’s election beginning of end • Northern Military presence shrank • 1872 Liberal Republican Revolt • 1874 Democrats win House of Representatives • Reconstruction became a political liability • Death of Charles Sumner and Thaddeus Stevens loss of leadership • Abandonment of “Bloody-shirt” argument • Sick of “Carpet Bag Government”
Political Cartoon-Purpose • To satirize • To editorialize • To educate
“Father of the Modern Caricature” • Born in Germany • Joined “Harper’s Weekly” in 1862 • A Radical Republican • Worked in support Reconstruction Amendments and further support of Reconstructionist policies • Worked against William “Boss” Tweed starting in 1868
Impact • Worked against Republican opponents in various elections, specifically 1864 and 1872. • One of Nast's cartoons was said to have re-elected Lincoln in 1864, and Lincoln himself commented that Nast was his best recruiting sergeant. Grant attributed his election as President in 1868 in part to Nast’s work.
Boss Tweed on Thomas Nast • "Stop them damn pictures. I don't care what the papers write about me. My constituents can't read. But, damn it, they can see the pictures." ---Boss Tweed
Citation Slide • http://www.csub.edu/~gsantos/cat15.html • http://www2.truman.edu/parker/research/cartoons.html
Garfield and Arthur • Arthur (Stalwart) and Garfield (Half-Breed) • Blaine v. Conkling • PARTRONAGE IS THE GAME • Used the “Bloody” shirt in Election of 1880 • Garfield assassinated by Guiteau (“I am a Stalwart…”) • Makes a great case for CIVIL SERVICE REFORM-Pendleton Civil Service Act
Blaine-Cleveland-1884 • “Ma...Ma…Where’s my Pa?” • “He’s gone to the White House…Ha...Ha…Ha…” • “Rum, Romanism and Rebellion” • Know-Nothingesque slanders about Irish Americans gave Cleveland New York