The French in America to 1760 Nouvelle-France
Nouvelle-France Why did the French and other Europeans come to North America and how did they interact with the First Peoples?
Introduction • 15th century navigation- pioneer sailing routes to Asia and America • Looking for exotic products from the Far East. • In 1492, Columbus landed and was disappointed as he thought it was the shores of China(main interest) • The “New World” was not ideal as they wanted to find away around this massive land.
Who Came to the New World • Britain • Spain • Portugal • France-feared they would be left behind for world trade.
The Vikings • The Vikings were the first people to come to Canada. They landed at L’anse aux Meadows around 1000 AD and encountered Beothuk people. They did not make a permanent settlement.
Land Ho! Britain: wealth and indentured labourers Spain: passage for spices Portugal: spices, territory, organized slave trade France-feared they would be left behind for world trade. Settlement necessary to ensure imperial supremcy.
John Cabot • John Cabot came to Canada for England in 1497 to look for the Northwest passage. Instead he found vast amounts of cod off the coast of Newfoundland. He reported back to England of this discovery, and over the next 100 years many countries would be fishing off the Grand Banks.
France and Cartier • France sent an expedition in 1534. • Jacques Cartier headed this expedition • Cartier headed 3 voyages from 1534-1542 and penetrated from the St. Lawrence river to Montreal • He also established a settlement in Quebec
Jacques Cartier • He encountered Aboriginal people at Hochelaga (present day Montreal) and Stadacona. • Cartier and his men brought Aboriginal people back to France to demonstrate the quality of slaves they would make. • They died of European disease on the way back to France.
Henry Hudson • Henry Hudson looking for the Northwest passage. The Northwest Passage would be a faster trade route to China. The spice trade was very profitable at this time. Eventually made it to Hudson’s Bay ( Hudson’s Bay Company)
John Guy • John Guy looking for the Northwest Passage. Hit Baffin Island instead.
Life in Nouvelle-France How did the French structure society within their colony 1608-1763
Early Life in Quebec • Climate was sever • “The Great River,” or the St. Lawrence never lead to the East as Cartier hoped • France abandoned colonization for 65 years. • In the summer France came to NFLD to fish and then trading began with the First Nations. • The fish and furs forced France back to the New World.
Geography Economy of New France Church of New France Royal Government and Soldiers Life on the farm Transportation Marriage and the family The 13 colonies New France: An Overview of Life
Geography of Nouvelle-France • Population was very small • By 1740, the territory of New France went all the way to the Gulf of Mexico ( La Salle and Cavelier) • This Southern region was called Louisana • Draw on board pg. 75
Exploration Wanted to force the British out past the mountains and expand territory. “We must arm and support them against those who are in the English interest and force the latter back beyond the mountains” Exploration won but was a bad move as the territory became to large to support Settlement Colbert wanted to settle and form the area into towns and villages so they could defend themselves. France should have listened to Colbert. Geography: 2 schools of thought
Nouvelle-France, 1750 French Territory
The Economy of Nouvelle-France • New France was a colony which meant it was not an independent entity. • It belonged to the mother country • A colony’s main job is to support the the mother country and provided it with riches.
Economy cont’d 2 main goals: 1. Fur trade provided new raw materials 2. Provide useful markets for goods produced in the mother country eg. Cloth, hardware.
Economy cont’d What is mercantilism? • New France provided France with the raw materials and then sent them to France where they became manufactured goods. France then sold the manufactured goods back to the colony. • This system made the colonies a profitable economic enterprise.
Advantages and Disadvantages to Mercantilism Advantage: -produced wealth and consumed goods for the mother country Disadvantage: - the development of the colony was always in the interest of the mother country and not the colony. Trade with other places was forbidden
Economy: Fur Trade • Fur trade: main economic trade of New France. • Furs only important export of colony • Quest for furs forced France further into the continent causing alliances with First Nation Groups and competition with other European countries. • First Nations valued metal wear (summer trading)
Fur trade: Warfare • Fur trade caused warfare as First Nation groups were fighting against each other to be the main trading partner with Europeans. • Europeans were fighting against each other to control the trading routes • Huron were the main partners of the French (Champlain)
Fur trade: Warfare • Iroquois fought against the Huron. • France was fighting with the Iroquois for over 100 years. • In 1649, the Iroquois destroyed Huronia driving the inhabitants into exile. • They threatened to drive the French out. However in 1666, King Louis XIV sent an army to attack the Iroquois and peace was made.
Huron Iroquois Wars • By 1649 the Iroquois are dependant on the fur trade, but they have wiped out their own supplies. • The Iroquois start to move north to trap furs near the Huron people. • REMEMBER: The Iroquois have a lot of guns. They have not been exposed to as many diseases as the Huron because there are not any Europeans living among them. • Only Christianized Hurons get guns. • The Iroquois win a series of battles because of these reasons. • They settle in the area and the fur trade starts to move west. • The French need a new plan because the Iroquois are trading with the English, and the Huron people are basically non-existent.
The Great Peace (1701)Aboriginal Peace • One of the best examples of diplomacy among Aboriginal people. • Over 50 Aboriginal groups meet at Quebec to establish a lasting peace between the Aboriginal groups. • The Iroquois promise to be neutral in any conflict between the French and English. They also agree to be neutral for any trading relationship. • Peace comes at a great price: • lost their land and had to move to new territory which is not always neutral. • starving and dying from disease. • This is largely due to the dependence on the fur trade and disease
Fur Trade: Coureurs de Bois • Runners of the woods • They left there farms in the summer and meet the Aboriginal trappers at their hunting grounds. • They were responsible for transporting the furs from the interior to the colony
Advantages The furs they produced enriched the colony Help secure loyalty with Aboriginals Adventured further inland. Disadvantages Authorities did not like them neglecting their farms They lead a footloose life. Officials could not enforce laws against them as they could slip into the wilderness Independent traders working for own profit not colony. Couruers de Bois
Fur Trade: Mad Hatter The beaver fur was removed from the skin and was masked together with other adhesives. The “Hatter” (the name used for a hat maker) would add mercury. The chemicals in mercury would get underneath the hatter’s finger nails and into his skin. The chemicals would make him go crazy hence they were known as a MAD HATTER!!
Fur Trade: 2 main Purposes • Economic -increase revenue to support the growth of France and to support the constant wars against Britain • Military - with the help of the Aboriginals each country could expand further westward and defeat the other country
Fur Trade: Groseillers and Radisson • In 1660 Groseillers and Radisson learned of a “northern sea” that would save a trader a long journey • They proposed the idea to the French King. • In 1668, they went to the British King. They set sail on the Nonsuch and entered the Hudson Bay. • In 1670, the Hudson Bay Company (HBC) was formed. The King gave the HBC a monopoly as they controlled all the land where the rivers drained into the Hudson Bay.
Fur Trade: British vs. French • The British relied on the Aboriginals to bring the furs to them. • The French went out and got the furs • What would be more profitable?
Fur Trade: Development of Industry and Trade • Fish was another demanding resource • Catholics ate a lot of fish due to religion • Colonies were not intended to have industries of their own that produced goods available to the mother country from other sources.
Fur Trade: Development of Industry and Trade North Atlantic Triangle New France France Antilles Africa Manufactured goods Furs wood, Fish Fish Flour Wood Sugar Rum Tobacco Manufactured Goods Sugar, rum, tobacco
After Champlain Dies • English are settling South of the St. Lawrence in the thirteen colonies • Acadia (present day Nova Scotia) is controlled by the French • New France has a very low population • The Recollects are already in New France trying to Christianize Algonquian people. • The Iroquois are not being Christianized at this point. They are trading with the English and Dutch south of the St. Lawrence.
The Church in Nouvelle-France • Religious outpost • Purpose to convert North Americans to Christianity • Missionaries among the first colonists • Jesuits arrived in 1625, most aggressive missionaries. • Jesuits concentrated on the Huron and lived with them by 1634
The Jesuits • The Jesuits were French Missionaries sent to New France to spread Christianity to Aboriginal People after the Recollects fail. • They wanted to “humanize” the “savages” to make them suitable citizens for New France. • They did this by isolating Aboriginal People from their groups, and removing them from Aboriginal way of life (spirituality and nomadic lifestyle.) • They formally educate the Hurons. • Their hopes for mass conversion failed, however they did bring disease, the break up of families, and conflict.
The Ursuline Sisters • A female version of the Jesuit order. • They set up an all female school for Aboriginal girls in Huronia. • They convinced already Christianized Aboriginal men to send their daughters to the school.
Missionaries and the Huron • Huron resisted the Jesuits • A smallpox epidemic swept through Huronia killing thousands. The Huron blamed the missionaries and wanted them to leave. • However, some believed it was a sign of what would happen if you did not convert.
Missionaries and the Huron • In fear of losing the trade and of death by not converting to Christianity many of the Huron converted. • Missionaries blamed the lack of conversions on the Aboriginals nomadic lifestyle. • They felt the only way to succeed was through settlement (Farming)
Church and Daily Life • Church=religious and social centre • Colonist support their church by giving them a portion of their income called a tithe. • At the head of the church was the Bishop. • Religious comminutes operated the schools • Nursing sisters or Nuns established hospitals. • Nuns cared for the poor, orphans or families who did not have support($)
Royal Government and Soldiers Nouvelle-France
Government and Soldiers • 2 most important people: governor and intendant.They were appointed by the King • Intendant: looked after internal affairs (roads, courts, social welfare) • Governor: responsible for external affairs (military) • Bishop: in charge of the Roman Catholic Church. Oversaw Healthcare, education, and converting the Aboriginal people. New France was a heavily militarized society
Government and Soldiers • Every male was a soldier • Population was organized into military units • Each Parish had a company of militia consisting of men between 16-60 • Captain was chosen by the inhabitants, in peace times they acted as a spokesperson
Important Officials to Nouvelle-France Minister of Colonial Affairs for France • Jean-Baptiste Colbert : 1. Build a colonial empire with a navy to defend it. 2. Halt expansion west. He doesn’t think that colony can defend itself. 3. Colonies can fund France’s military, pay off French debt through the mercantile policy. 4. Don’t want the colony to become too powerful, so they make the government officials answer to the King instead of allowing them to have their own ruling body.
Sovereign Council The Sovereign Council was the ruling body in New France. Sovereign Council was an appointed body modeled after French Parliament to serve as the court, Included an Intendant, a Governor, a Bishop and an attorney general.
Intendant Intendant The first Intendant to arrive in New France is Jean Talon. Responsible for justice, finance, and the welfare of the colony. Usually a professional such as a lawyer. Ran the day-to-day affairs of the colony.
Governor Governor The first Governor of New France is Frontenac. Responsible for military and external relations. Usually a noble and represented the King directly.