Muslim Empires. Suleiman the Magnificent. In the late 16th century the Ottoman empire had 27 million people who spoke some twenty languages
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Suleiman the Magnificent • In the late 16th century the Ottoman empire had 27 million people who spoke some twenty languages • To become a member of the Turkish ruling class, one had to do three things: (1) profess loyalty to the sultan and the state; (2) accept Sunni Islam and the system of thought that went with it; (3) become fluent in Turkish language and customs
Suleiman allowed Muslims, Jews and Christians to live in segregated communities. • Thesecommunities were called millets. • each Millet was under its own laws and a religious leader was responsible to the sultan for taxes and security • Each millet took care of matters that the state did not get involved in, such as marriage and divorce, birth and death, health, education, internal security, and justice
The millet system worked for 500 years by keeping the different ethnic groups separated. • The main restrictions upon Jews and Christians were: they had to pay a special tax, • they could not ride horses or bear arms, • and they could not enter the army or the civil service unless they became slaves first
He was known as "the lawgiver" because he setup a fair set of laws for his empire • Divided society into 4 distinct groups • Men of the Pen, • Men of the Sword, • Men of Negotiation, • and Men of Husbandry
Though almost constantly at war, the Ottoman empire brought peace to most of the peoples in it.
The Golden Age of Muslim Culture Between the years 900-1100 A.D. Islamic society reached it’s height of power and glory. “Q” What were the achievements of the Golden Age of Muslim culture? 1. The Arabs preserved the cultures of the people they conquered.
They translated many Greco-Roman classics into Arabic. They were responsible for the preservation of ancient Greek knowledge. • 2. They experimented with new types of farming techniques, and fertilizers. They expanded irrigation canals and turned arid land into fertile soil. • Golden age of Islam • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JZDe9DCx7Wk&NR=1 • Baghdad • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KUkyOjl4YJ4
3. Economic achievements included central banks, joint stock companies, trade associations, letters of credit, and checks. All of these achievements helped to stimulate trade and business, making the Arab world one of the wealthiest in the ancient world. Muslim traders navigated to Asia many years before the Europeans discovered the Cape of Good Hope.
4. Medical technology was another area that the Arabs excelled in. They had the finest medical schools in the ancient world. Their doctors were treating illnesses and performing minor surgeries centuries before the Europeans. • 5. Scientific achievements included algebra, astronomy, architecture, and chemistry.
Key People in Islamic Society Abu Bakr- Muhammad’s father-in-law, and first Caliph (successor) after the death of Muhammad. Abu al-Abbas- overthrew the Umayyad Dynasty in 750, and established the Abbasid Dynasty (750-1258), built a new capital in Baghdad. This city became the center of a huge commercial market that aided the Golden Age of Islam.
Mehmet II- captured Constantinople in 1453, renamed the city Istanbul. • Ibn Sina (Avicenna) - His most famous book, "The Canon of Medicine" is still one of the most important medical books ever written the book described 760 drugs. • Ibn Battuta – Famous traveler, the Marco Polo of the Islamic World.
Ibn Battuta mainly traveled in the area surrounded by the green line "Dar al-Islam"
Safavid Empire • The reign of Shah Abbas the Great represented the height of the Safavid Empire • He transformed the empire from near-collapse to one of the three Great Islamic Empires by 1600.
He was an insecure ruler who feared that his ascension to the throne - by deposing his father - would be re-enacted upon him. • For that reason, he killed his eldest son in 1615. • This resulted in ill-educated shahs with no governing experience, this contributed to the empire's decline.
The Safavid Empire was a short-lived empire • But during its relatively short existence the Safavid Empire established itself as one of Islam's greatest dynasties. • One big problem was could not control the seas. • Although no navy, Shah Abbas became allies with the Portuguese and used their navy against the Ottomans to give them access to trade. • Exported fine rugs and other woven products to Europe.
Perhaps most significant among its achievements was the widespread conversion of the Persian people to Shi'ism, and the development of the Persian nationalism that remains strong today in Iran
During the Safavid Dynasty, women had considerable freedom and liberty compared to the other women of the time in different empires. • They were not equal to the men, yet they had many rights that other women would not be granted until much later • When the great Shah Abbas died in 1629 women were forced to wear veils over their faces and long, thick clothing to cover their bodies.
This not only showed the power of men and the weakness of women, but it was also extremely uncomfortable, since temperatures could get up to 103 degrees in the summer time. • Most women spent their time in the home to avoid wearing the thick clothing and the hijab (the name of the veil), for at home the women could be "free" and wear what they wanted to
Akbar / Mughal Empire • Muslim, Indian, and Western historians all see Akbar as the greatest ruler of Indian history • He put military governors in charge of each region to end poor treatment of people • Abuses of power and mistreatment of the poor or weak resulted in severe punishments and death
The most important part of the bureaucracy was tax collection, the tax was assessed equally on every member of the empire 1/3 of the value of crops produced
Akbar worked hard to win over the hearts and minds of the Hindu leaders he married a Hindu princess (and is said to have married several thousand wives for political and diplomatic purposes) Akbar believed that all religions should be tolerated, and that a ruler's duty was to treat all believers equally, whatever their belief
non-Muslims were not forced to obey Islamic law, and Hindus were allowed to regulate themselves through their own law and institutions. • He also eliminated the tax assessed on non-Muslims • Akbar also included vast number of Hindus in the official bureaucracy • He ended the destruction of Hindu temples • He introduced a new type of religion called Godism!!!!
The Mughal Empire • ruled most of India and Pakistan in the 16th thru the mid 19th century • The Mughals were Muslims who ruled a country with a large Hindu majority. • The Mughals brought many changes to India: • Centralized government which brought together many smaller kingdoms • New Architecture – Taj Mahal • Educational systems
A style of architecture (e.g. the Taj Mahal) A system of education that took account of pupils' needs and culture
Aurangzeb -the last Mughal Emperor • He came to throne after imprisoning his father and having his older brother killed. • Expanded the Moghul Empire to its greatest size • He no longer allowed the Hindu community to live under their own laws and customs, but imposed Sharia law over the whole empire • Thousands of Hindu temples and shrines were torn down and a punitive tax on Hindu subjects was re-imposed • the empire had simply become too big to be successfully governed. • The Hindu kingdoms also fought back often supported by the French and the British, who used them to tighten their grip on the sub-continent
Aurangzeb’s extremism caused Mughal territory and creativity to dry up and the Empire went into decline. The Mughal Emperors that followed Aurangzeb effectively became British or French puppets. The last Mughal Emperor was deposed by the British in 1858. He ruled India for a period of 48 years (comparable to that of Akbar, regarded the greatest Mughal emperor)