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Instructor’s name Semester, 200_. Chapter Objectives. Explain the difference between communicable and noncommunicable diseases and between acute and chronic diseases. Describe and explain communicable and multicausation disease models.

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instructor s name semester 200
Instructor’s name

Semester, 200_

chapter objectives
Chapter Objectives
  • Explain the difference between communicable and noncommunicable diseases and between acute and chronic diseases.
  • Describe and explain communicable and multicausation disease models.
  • Explain why noncommunicable diseases are a community health concern and provide some examples of communicable and provide some examples of important noncommunicable diseases
chapter objectives1
Chapter Objectives
  • Explain how communicable diseases are transmitted in a community using the “chain of infection” model and use a specific communicable disease to illustrate your explanation.
  • Explain the difference between primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention of disease.
chapter objectives2
Chapter Objectives
  • List and explain the various criteria that communities might use in order to prioritize their health problems in preparation for the allocation of prevention and control resources
  • List and discuss the measures for preventing and controlling the spread of communicable diseases in a community.
chapter objectives3
Chapter Objectives
  • List and discuss approaches to non-communicable disease control in a community.
  • Define and explain the purpose and importance of health screenings.
  • Outline a chronic, noncommunicable disease control program that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary disease prevention components.
classification of diseases health problems
Classification of Diseases & Health Problems
  • 4 Classification Schemes
  • Organ or Organ System
    • i.e., heart disease, kidney disease, respiratory infection
  • Causative Agent
    • Biological Agents
    • Chemical Agents
    • Physical Agents
causative agents for diseases injuries
Causative Agents for Diseases & Injuries

Biological

Agents

Chemical

Agents

Physical

Agents

Viruses

Rickettsiae

Bacteria

Fungi

Protozoa

Metazoa

Pesticides

Food additives

Pharmacologics

Industrial chemicals

Air pollutants

Cigarette smoke

Heat

Light

Radiation

Noise

Vibration

Speeding

objects

classification of diseases health problems1
Classification of Diseases & Health Problems
  • Organ or Organ System
    • i.e., heart disease, kidney disease, respiratory infection
  • Causative Agent
    • Biological Agents
    • Chemical Agents
    • Physical Agents
  • Communicable vs Non communicable
  • Acute vs Chronic
    • Peak symptoms within 3 months (acute) or longer than 3 months (chronic)
types of diseases examples
Types of Diseases Examples

Acute Diseases

Communicable

Noncommunicable

Chronic Diseases

Communicable

Noncommunicable

Common cold, pneumonia,

mumps, measles, pertussis,

typhoid fever, cholera

Appendicitis, poisoning, trauma

Tuberculosis, AIDS, Lyme disease,

syphilis, rheumatic fever

Diabetes, coronary heart disease,

osteoarthritis, cirrhosis of the liver

communicable disease model
Communicable Disease Model

Triangle

Epidemiologic

Model

communicable disease model1
Communicable Disease Model

Agent

- the element that

must be present in order

for the diseases to occur.

communicable disease model2
Communicable Disease Model

Host

- any susceptible

organism invaded

by an infectious agent

Agent

communicable disease model3
Communicable Disease Model

Host

Agent

Environment

- all

other factors that inhibit

or promote disease

transmission.

chain of infection
Chain of Infection

A model to conceptualize the transmission of a

communicable disease from its source to a susceptible hose

chain of infection1
Chain of Infection

Pathogen

- is the disease causing agent

chain of infection2
Chain of Infection
  • is the habitat in which an infectious agent normally lives & grows
  • Human: symptomatic or asymptomatic
  • Animal: called zoonoses
  • Environmental: plants, soil, and water

Pathogen

Reservoir

chain of infection3
Chain of Infection
  • is the path by which an agent leaves the source host

Portal

of exit

Pathogen

Reservoir

chain of infection4
Chain of Infection

Modes of Transmission

Direct

- Direct contact

- Droplet spread

Indirect

- Airborne

- Vehicleborne

- Vectorborne

- how pathogens

are passed

Portal

of exit

Pathogen

Trans-

mission

Reservoir

chain of infection5
Chain of Infection

Portal

of exit

Pathogen

Portal

of entry

Trans-

mission

Reservoir

- agent enters

susceptible host

Respiratory

Oral

Skin

Intravenous

Gastrointestinal

chain of infection6
Chain of Infection

Portal

of exit

Pathogen

Portal

of entry

New

Host

Trans-

mission

Reservoir

- Final link is

a susceptible host

noncommunicable disease model
Noncommunicable Disease Model

Your genetic

endowment

noncommunicable disease model1
Noncommunicable Disease Model

Personality

Beliefs

Your genetic

endowment

Behavioral

choices

noncommunicable disease model2
Noncommunicable Disease Model

Environment

Health Care

System

Personality

Beliefs

Economics

Your genetic

endowment

Water Quality

Behavioral

choices

Air

Pollution

prioritizing prevention control efforts
Prioritizing Prevention & Control Efforts
  • Leading Causes of Death
  • Years of Potential Life Lost
  • Economic Cost to Society
prioritizing prevention and control efforts
Prioritizing Prevention and Control Efforts
  • Leading Causes of Death
  • Years of Potential Life Lost
  • Economic Cost to Society
prevention intervention control and eradication of diseases
Prevention, Intervention, Control, and Eradication of Diseases
  • Prevention
    • primary
    • secondary
    • tertiary
  • Intervention
    • which is defined as taking of action during an event
  • Control
    • general term used in the containment of disease
  • Eradication
    • total elimination of the disease
levels of prevention
Levels of Prevention
  • Primary Prevention
    • is the forestalling of the onset of illness or injury during the pre-pathogenesis period (before the disease process begins)
  • Secondary Prevention
    • is the early diagnosis and prompt treatment of diseases before the disease becomes advanced and disability becomes severe
  • Tertiary Prevention
    • is to retrain, reeducate, and rehabilitate the patient who has already incurred disability
slide28

Chapter 4

Epidemiology:

Prevention and

Control of Diseases

and Health Conditions

ad