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Mediterranean Europe

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Mediterranean Europe

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Mediterranean Europe

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  1. Mediterranean Europe

  2. A History of Ancient Glory

  3. Greece: Birthplace of Democracy • In 2000 B.C., city-states, political units made up of a city and its surrounding lands, were founded • Greece had a lasting impact on modern civilization; both their governments and culture are reflected in Europe today • A series of internal and external conflicts with Persia resulted in Greece’s downfall • Alexander III of Macedon created a huge empire that spread Greek culture but broke apart after his death

  4. The Roman Empire • Rome was a republic, a government in which citizens elect representatives to rule in their name • Later, it became an empire, and conquered many oversea territories, which led to civil unrest in Italy • Christianity was born in Palestine, a Roman territory, and spread throughout the empire from there • By 395 A.D., the empire had split; the western half was conquered by Germanic invaders within a century, while the eastern half lasted 1,000 years longer

  5. Moving Towards Modern Times

  6. Italian City-States • Italy became divided into many small states after the fall of Rome • During the Crusades, Italy became rich through banking and foreign trade • In the 14th century, it became the birthplace of the Renaissance, which spread north from there • Italy’s wealth did not protect it from disease; in 1347, the black plague killed millions.

  7. Spain’s Empire • Muslims from North Africa conquered the Iberian Peninsula in the 700s • The Catholics in Spain drove the Muslims out in 1492 • Also in 1492, Christopher Columbus discovered America; Spain and Portugal were the first to establish colonies around the world

  8. A Rich Cultural Legacy

  9. Rome’s Cultural Legacy • Many of the languages spoken in Europe today are derived from Latin, the language of Rome • The split of the Roman Empire also caused a split in Christianity, separating Orthodox from Catholicism

  10. Centuries of Art • Many architectural ideas from that era impact design today • This region also has an artistic legacy; many famous painters and sculptors were born here

  11. Economic Change

  12. Agriculture to Industry • Mediterranean nations are less industrial than those of Northern and Western Europe • In the late 20th century, the region’s economy evolved into one of manufacturing • Greece, Portugal, and Spain strengthened their trade when they joined the European Union

  13. Economic Problems • The region still faces economic challenges, such as Italy’s northern half being more developed than its southern half • The entire Mediterranean region has poor energy resources, forcing them to rely heavily on imported petroleum

  14. Modern Mediterranean Life • Italy and Spain saw the rise of dictators during World War II • The Basques of the Pyrenees have had an ongoing fight independence with Spain • City growth has led to housing shortages, pollution, and traffic jams

  15. Western Europe

  16. A History of Cultural Divisions

  17. Rome to Charlemagne • France and Germany are the dominant countries in Western Europe • Resources, ports and trade routes helped them to build productive economies • After the Roman Empire conquered the Celtic Tribes, Latin was born • French is one of the Roman languages • After Charlemagne died, his empire began to fall apart

  18. The Reformation • During the Renaissance, people began to question the Catholic Church • In 1517, Martin Luther published 95 statements that criticized church practices that were wrong • The Reformation was a period where many Christians broke away from the Catholic Church and started Protestant churches • Most of Western Europe is either Protestant or Catholic

  19. The Rise of Nation-States

  20. Nationalism • During the centuries after Rome fell, feudalism- a political system in which powerful lords own land, came in Europe • Nationalism is the belief that people should be loyal to their country • People became upset that the King had all the power, so they rebelled. This was called the French Revolution • Western Europe experienced industrial growth in the 1800’s

  21. Modern Conflicts • The nationalistic rivalry and competition for land in Europe helped spark WWI • The Allied Powers won, and caused hate on Germany • This hate on Germany caused WWII. Germany was led by Adolf Hitler and the Nazi’s • Adolf Hitler caused the Holocaust- a program of mass murder of Jewish people • After Germany lost in 1945, it split into East and West Germany

  22. Economics: Diversity and Luxury

  23. Agriculture to High-Tech • Western Europe is rich in Agriculture • Belgium, France, the Netherlands and Switzerland export Dairy products • Western Europe leads the industry because of Iron ore and coal • Electronics is a major part of the Netherlands • France has a TGV, the fastest train on the planet

  24. Tourism and Luxury/ Economic Problems • Western Europe is a popular tourist location • It is also a leading exporter in luxurious goods, as it exports to all over the world • Germany has had economic problems ever since reuniting in 1992 • The east is suffering due to out-of-date factories and products

  25. Modern Life

  26. Music/Painting • Many famous musicians came from Germany, like Beethoven • Mozart came form Austria • Painters in Western Europe paint with great realism • They use oil paints

  27. City Life/Recent Conflicts • Western Europe cities have good transportation, and lots of entertainment • Many people socialize in café’s when the weather is nice • Conflicts in Germany include Immigration, and overpopulation

  28. Northern Europe

  29. A History of Seafaring Conquerors

  30. Early Conquerors • Northern Europe was settled by waves of migrating people • The Roman Empire conquered Great Britain and held it until its decline, when it was taken from Germanic tribes • During the Middle Ages, seafaring warriors, known as the Vikings, terrorized Europe by conducting hit-and-run raids on coastal towns. • In the 11th century, William the Conqueror of Normandy subjugated England and began to rule over it.

  31. Dreams of Empire • Denmark, Sweden, and Norway were all strong kingdoms, but none ever became an empire • On the other hand, Great Britain built an empire that affected the entire world • Britain had the geographic advantage of being an island; no army could get to it without going through their navy • Great Britain had so many colonies, that it was always day in some part of the empire

  32. Moving into the Modern Age

  33. Representative Government • The absolute monarchy of England became limited by a parliament • This was done by the signing of the Magna Carta • These ideas spread on to the colonies of Britain

  34. Industrial Revolution/Since 1900 • Large deposits of iron and coal helped Britain to be the first nation to industrialize • After WWII, the British Empire changed, as nearly all its colonies gained independence • Britain still faces the problem of Irish Independence; only part of Ireland has been given its freedom

  35. Economics: diversity and change

  36. Industry and Resources • Sweden and the United Kingdom both have many aerospace, paper, food, and pharmaceuticals industries in common • Northern Europe has plenty of natural resources: Sweden exports timber, Iceland relies on its fishing, and Norway utilizes a large portion of the North Sea oil

  37. Technology/Union • Technology has rapidly changed Europe’s economy, and become a major part of many countries’ industries • There is a controversy about the European Union, which pressures the European nations to join it • Europeans also have mixed feelings about adopting the euro, which many do not feel is best for their country

  38. Cultural Similarities and modern art

  39. Similar Languages and Regions • Most people of Northern Europe speak a Germanic language • The Reformation also helped unite the region’s religious belief: the majority are Protestant

  40. Modern Culture and Literature • The Nordic countries have an influence on many modern arts, including theater and film • Great Britain’s William Shakespeare had a strong impact on literature; well after his time, his plays are still performed and adapted for movies

  41. Life in Northern Europe • The governments of Europe take great responsibility for the people, resulting in many benefits but high taxes • The people of these countries are also known for their distinctive countries • Even though these countries have some of the coldest climates, outdoor sports remain popular

  42. Eastern Europe

  43. History of a Cultural Crossroads • Eastern Europe is a cultural crossroads, a place where people of various cultures meet; since ancient times, people moved between Asia and Europe through here • By 100 A.D., this area was held by the Romans; it was held by the Byzantine Empire until the 14th century, when it was taken over by the Ottoman Empire • Austria drove the Ottomans out of the region, but later the area was divided up among Prussia, Russia, and themselves

  44. Turmoil in the 20th Century

  45. War After War • By the 20th century, Greece, Bulgaria, Montenegro, Romania, and Serbia had gotten their independence from the Ottomans • They were constantly fighting over pieces of territory, which led to the creation of a new word: balkanization, referring to a region breaking up into small, mutually hostile units • The turmoil in this area eventually led to World War I, when a Serbian assassinated an Austrian noble • When the war was over, the Ottoman Empire split into Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Turkey, and Yugoslavia • During World War II, Germany conquered most of this region; after the war, Eastern Europe became a region of satellite nations of Russia

  46. Recent Changes • By the late 1980’s the Soviet Union had economic problems, and Eastern Europe was given more freedom • All the Eastern European countries gave up communism for democracy • Instability followed, as loyalty was now transferred to ethnic groups, leading to the area’s balkanization

  47. Developing the economy

  48. Industry • Under communism, the government owned all factories, so production was not very efficient • Eastern Europe traded with the Soviet Union, so technology produced in democratic nations was not given to them; the type of factories they used also created a lot more pollution • The dramatic switch to a market economy caused problems such as inflation and unemployment

  49. Lingering Problems • Some nations have had trouble making economic progress • Albania’s growth is slowed by old equipment, a lack of raw materials, and a shortage of educated workers • Romania’s citizens do not have money to invest in business, and foreigners do not want to • The civil wars of 1990 in former Yugoslavia damaged many buildings, and either killed or forced workers to emigrate from the country • It will take years for these countries to overcome the damage of communism

  50. Modern Life