Personality… • How many traits make one’s personality? List 5-10 traits that comprise your personality (or 5-12, Afia!). Are those traits consistent and distinct? • On the next slide, we will generate a list of all personality traits, narrow it down to only 8 traits and design a test that assesses that trait in people.
Funny • Compassionate • Optimistic • Aggressive • Pessimistic • Confident • Wise • Adventurous
Example: LEADERSHIP • Question might be: “When I join clubs, I like to assume one of the officer positions in the club” or “people usually seek my opinion when they are having problems.” Then the person would circle strongly agree, agree, disagree or strongly disagree.
Defining Personality:Consistency and Distinctiveness • Personality Traits – consistent and distinctive • Dispositions and dimensions • The Five-Factor Model • Extraversion (outgoing, sociable, upbeat, friendly, assertive, and gregarious) • Neuroticism (anxious, hostile, self-conscious, insecure and vulnerable) • Openness to experience (curious, flexible, vivid fantasies, imaginative, artistic, unconventional attitudes) • Agreeableness (sympathetic, trusting, cooperative, modest, and straightforward) • Conscientiousness (diligent, disciplined, well organized, punctual, and dependable)
Psychodynamic Perspectives • Freud’s psychoanalytic theory • Structure of personality • Id - Pleasure principle, want immediate gratification • Ego - Reality principle, delayed gratification – mediates between id and external world • Superego – Morality, social standards. Right and wrong. • Levels of awareness • Conscious • Unconscious • Preconscious
Psychodynamic Perspectives • Freud’s psychoanalytic theory • Internal Conflict • Sex and Aggression • Conflicts lead to anxiety • Ego constructs defense mechanisms (self-deception)
Freud on Development:Psychosexual Stages • Freud thought a personality’s foundation was laid by 5 years-old. • Sexual = physical pleasure • Psychosexual stages • Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latency, Genital • Fixation occurs due to excessive gratification or frustration and results in a failure to move forward • Fixation leads to an overemphasis on psychosexual needs during fixated stage
3.2.11 AP Psychology Agenda
Quiz… • Explain the difference between Freud’s concept of the id, the ego and the superego. Give an example of the role of each. • Why, according to Freud, do the conflicts surrounding sex and aggression cause so much confusion? • According to Freud, what is the purpose of defense mechanisms? • Give an example of displacement as a form of coping. • Explain reaction formation. • What is the Oedipal complex? • According to Jung, what is the difference between a personal and collective unconscious? • According to Adler, what is the primary focus of a person’s motivation? • What is one criticism of psychodynamic theories?
Other Psychodynamic Theorists • Carl Jung: Analytical Psychology • Unconscious is broken into 2 layers: personal and collective • Archetypes – emotionally charged images and thoughts that have universal meaning. • Introversion/Extroversion • Alfred Adler: Individual Psychology • Striving for superiority more important than sexual conflict • Compensation – want to overcome inferiority • Inferiority complex/overcompensation – seek status and power, flaunting their success • Birth order
Evaluating Psychodynamic Perspectives • Pros • The unconscious • The role of internal conflict • The importance of early childhood experiences • Cons • Poor testability • Inadequate empirical base • Sexist views
3.3.11 AP Psychology Agenda
Quiz… • How did Skinner define personality? • T or F, Skinner attributed much of a person’s personality development to their internal thought processes. • Explain Bandura’s idea of Reciprocal Determinism. • According to Bandura, how are “models” significant to a person’s personality development? • Does Mischel think people demonstrate behavioral consistency? • What is one criticism of the behaviorism perspective of personality development?
Quiz… • How people act/react to external stimuli, collection of response tendencies • f • External stimuli + internal mental events + overt behavior • You imitate models • no • What is one criticism of the behaviorism perspective of personality development?
Behavioral Perspectives • Skinner’s views • Personality learned through conditioning • Environmental determinism • Bandura’s views • Social leaning theory • Cognitive processes and reciprocal determinism • Observational learning • Models • Self-efficacy • Mischel’s views • The person-situation controversy
Figure 12.6 Personality development and operant conditioning
Evaluating Behavioral Perspectives • Pros • Based on rigorous research • Insights into effects of learning and environmental factors • Cons • Over-dependence on animal research • Fragmented view of personality • Dehumanizing views
3.4.11 AP Psychology
Quiz… • T or F – humanistic perspectives on personality rely heavily on animal research. • How did Rogers define a person’s self-concept? • What is incongruence? • What is the difference between conditional and unconditional affection? • What does Rogers think is the primary cause of anxiety? • According to Maslow, what is the highest hierarchy of needs? • What is one argument against the humanist perspective?
Humanistic Perspectives • Carl Rogers • Person Centered Theory • Self-concept • Conditional/unconditional positive regard • Incongruence and anxiety • Abraham Maslow • Self-actualization theory • Hierarchy of needs • The healthy personality
Evaluating Humanistic Perspectives • Humanistic theories are credited with highlighting the importance of a person’s subjective view of reality. They are also applauded for focusing attention on the issue of what constitutes a healthy personality. • They are criticized for lacking a strong research base, poor testability, and what may be an overly optimistic view of human nature (Maslow had a hard time finding live people who had self-actualized).
quiz • Twin studies suggest that family environment has a (large/small) impact on one’s personality development. • Explain Hans Eysenck’s hierarchical theory of personality development. • Explain the evolutionary theory of personality development. • What is one criticism of the biological theory of personality development?
Biological Perspectives • Eysenk’s theory • 3 higher order traits • Extraversion, neuroticism, and psychoticism • Determined by genes • Twin studies • Novelty seeking and genetics • The evolutionary approach • Traits conducive to reproductive fitness
Homework – 497 – 501 (quiz tomorrow) • Test on Wednesday • What are the primary causes of anxiety? • Why is it important to have a good self-esteem?
Evaluating Biological Perspectives • Pros • Convincing evidence for genetic influence • Cons • Conceptual problems with heritability estimates • Artificial carving apart of nature and nurture • No comprehensive biological theory
QUIZ • According to terror management theories, what causes anxiety in humans? • How do humans deal with the potential for terror? • How does self-esteem serve as a terror management tool? • How does one’s cultural worldview lead to prejudice and aggression? • How does terror management theory explain materialism? • What is the difference between individualism and collectivism? • What is self-enhancement? Is it more common in Western or Eastern cultures?
Homework: 501 – 507 • Test Thursday • Key terms due on Thursday too
Contemporary Empirical Approaches:Terror Management Theory • Conflict between self-preservation and ability to foresee death • Culture and self-esteem • Anxiety buffer
Contemporary Empirical Approaches:Terror Management Theory • Increasing subjects’ mortality salience causes them to: • Punish moral transgressions more harshly • Be less tolerant of criticism of their country • Give greater rewards to those who uphold cultural standards • Respect cultural icons more