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The Science of Psychology. Chapter 1. What is Psychology?. Psychology is the study of behavior and mental processes Includes the study of both humans and animals. The Fields of Psychology. Developmental Psychology Physiological Psychology Experimental Psychology Personality Psychology

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the science of psychology

The Science of Psychology

Chapter 1

Psychology: An Introduction 12/e - Charles G. Morris & Albert A. Maisto (c) 2005 Prentice Hall

what is psychology
What is Psychology?
  • Psychology is the study of behavior and mental processes
  • Includes the study of both humans and animals

Psychology: An Introduction 12/e - Charles G. Morris & Albert A. Maisto (c) 2005 Prentice Hall

the fields of psychology
The Fields of Psychology
  • Developmental Psychology
  • Physiological Psychology
  • Experimental Psychology
  • Personality Psychology
  • Clinical and Counseling Psychology
  • Social Psychology
  • Industrial and Organizational Psychology

Psychology: An Introduction 12/e - Charles G. Morris & Albert A. Maisto (c) 2005 Prentice Hall

developmental psychology
Developmental Psychology
  • Study of physical and mental growth from birth to old age
  • Subfields
    • Child psychology
    • Adolescent psychology
    • Life-span psychology

Psychology: An Introduction 12/e - Charles G. Morris & Albert A. Maisto (c) 2005 Prentice Hall

physiological psychology
Physiological Psychology
  • Investigates the biological basis of human behavior
    • Neurotransmitters
    • Effects of drugs on the nervous system
    • Development of the nervous system
    • Gender differences in brain structure and function

Psychology: An Introduction 12/e - Charles G. Morris & Albert A. Maisto (c) 2005 Prentice Hall

experimental psychology
Experimental Psychology
  • Perform experiments on basic psychological processes
    • Learning
    • Memory
    • Sensation and perception
    • Cognition
    • Motivation
    • Emotion

Psychology: An Introduction 12/e - Charles G. Morris & Albert A. Maisto (c) 2005 Prentice Hall

personality psychology
Personality Psychology
  • Study of how people differ from one another on traits such as
    • Anxiety
    • Sociability
    • Self-esteem
    • Need for achievement
    • Aggressiveness

Psychology: An Introduction 12/e - Charles G. Morris & Albert A. Maisto (c) 2005 Prentice Hall

clinical and counseling psychology
Clinical and Counseling Psychology
  • Clinical psychologists are concerned with diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders
  • Counseling psychologists deal with “normal” problems, such as stress caused by career change or marital problems

Psychology: An Introduction 12/e - Charles G. Morris & Albert A. Maisto (c) 2005 Prentice Hall

social psychology
Social Psychology
  • Study of how people influence one another
  • Topics include:
    • First impressions
    • Interpersonal attraction
    • Attitude formation
    • Prejudice
    • Behavior in a group

Psychology: An Introduction 12/e - Charles G. Morris & Albert A. Maisto (c) 2005 Prentice Hall

industrial and organizational psychology
Industrial and Organizational Psychology
  • Study of psychological principles in industry and business
  • Examples
    • Selecting and training personnel
    • Productivity improvement
    • Working conditions
    • Impact of automation on workers

Psychology: An Introduction 12/e - Charles G. Morris & Albert A. Maisto (c) 2005 Prentice Hall

enduring issues in psychology
Enduring Issues in Psychology
  • Person–Situation
    • Is behavior caused by factors inside the person or outside?
  • Nature-Nurture
    • Is a person the product of genetics (nature) or simply the sum of their experiences (nurture)?
  • Stability–Change
    • Are behavior patterns learned in childhood permanent or do people change over time?

Psychology: An Introduction 12/e - Charles G. Morris & Albert A. Maisto (c) 2005 Prentice Hall

enduring issues in psychology12
Enduring Issues in Psychology
  • Diversity-Universality
    • How are people similar to others and how are they unique?
  • Mind–Body
    • What is the relationship between the mind and the body?

Psychology: An Introduction 12/e - Charles G. Morris & Albert A. Maisto (c) 2005 Prentice Hall

psychology as science
Psychology As Science
  • Psychologists use the scientific method
  • Steps to the scientific method
    • Collect data
    • Generate a theory to explain the data
    • Produce a testable hypothesis
    • Systematically test the hypothesis

Psychology: An Introduction 12/e - Charles G. Morris & Albert A. Maisto (c) 2005 Prentice Hall

the growth of psychology
The Growth of Psychology
  • The "New Psychology": A Science of the Mind
  • Wilhelm Wundt and Edward Bradford Titchener: Voluntarism and structuralism
    • Search for the basic units of experience

Psychology: An Introduction 12/e - Charles G. Morris & Albert A. Maisto (c) 2005 Prentice Hall

the growth of psychology15
The Growth of Psychology
  • William James: Functionalism
    • Studied how humans use perception to function in our environment
  • Sigmund Freud: Psychodynamic psychology
    • Behavior results from forces at work within the individual, often at an unconscious level

Psychology: An Introduction 12/e - Charles G. Morris & Albert A. Maisto (c) 2005 Prentice Hall

the growth of psychology16
The Growth of Psychology
  • John B. Watson: Behaviorism
    • Studied only observable behaviors
    • Expanded upon the work of Pavlov
  • B.F. Skinner: Behaviorism revisited
    • Expanded behaviorism
    • Viewed the mind as a “black box” that was irrelevant

Psychology: An Introduction 12/e - Charles G. Morris & Albert A. Maisto (c) 2005 Prentice Hall

the cognitive revolution
The Cognitive Revolution
  • The precursors to cognitive psychology:
    • Gestalt psychology
      • Study of how we perceive objects as whole patterns
    • Humanistic psychology
      • Emphasizes realization of full potential
      • Recognizes importance of love, self esteem, belonging, and self-actualization

Psychology: An Introduction 12/e - Charles G. Morris & Albert A. Maisto (c) 2005 Prentice Hall

the rise of cognitive psychology
The Rise of Cognitive Psychology
  • Study of mental processes
    • Thinking
    • Learning
    • Feeling
    • Remembering
    • Decision making

Psychology: An Introduction 12/e - Charles G. Morris & Albert A. Maisto (c) 2005 Prentice Hall

new directions in psychology
New Directions in Psychology
  • Evolutionary psychology
    • Studies tha adaptive value of behaviors and mental processes
  • Positive psychology
    • Study of the subjective feelings of happiness and well-being
    • Focus is on positive attitude

Psychology: An Introduction 12/e - Charles G. Morris & Albert A. Maisto (c) 2005 Prentice Hall

multiple perspectives
Multiple Perspectives
  • There is no single right answer
  • Several perspectives can provide insight into behavior

Psychology: An Introduction 12/e - Charles G. Morris & Albert A. Maisto (c) 2005 Prentice Hall

where are the women
Where Are The Women?
  • Women have made important contributions despite discrimination
  • Christine Ladd-Franklin
    • Completed requirements for Ph.D. in 1880s
    • Became a leading theorist in color vision

Psychology: An Introduction 12/e - Charles G. Morris & Albert A. Maisto (c) 2005 Prentice Hall

where are the women22
Where Are The Women?
  • Mary Whiton Calkins
    • First woman president of APA in 1905
    • Developed theory of self-psychology and a technique for studying verbal learning
  • Margaret Floy Washburn
    • First woman in America to receive a Ph.D. in psychology
    • Became head of psychology at Vassar College

Psychology: An Introduction 12/e - Charles G. Morris & Albert A. Maisto (c) 2005 Prentice Hall

where are the women23
Where Are The Women?
  • In recent years, the number of women with Ph.D.s has increased dramatically

Psychology: An Introduction 12/e - Charles G. Morris & Albert A. Maisto (c) 2005 Prentice Hall

human diversity in psychology
Human Diversity In Psychology
  • Psychology has begun to focus attention on issues of diversity

Psychology: An Introduction 12/e - Charles G. Morris & Albert A. Maisto (c) 2005 Prentice Hall

gender issues
Gender Issues
  • Defined as the psychological and social meanings attached to being biologically male or female
  • Gender stereotypes
    • Limited view of people based on gender
    • For example, “Only men can be police officers”

Psychology: An Introduction 12/e - Charles G. Morris & Albert A. Maisto (c) 2005 Prentice Hall

gender issues26
Gender Issues
  • Feminist psychology
    • Study of the psychology of women
    • Argue that
      • Much research is based on all-male samples, thus does not
      • Reports of gender differences focus too much on extremes and ignore similarities
      • Psychologists only study what they consider to be important

Psychology: An Introduction 12/e - Charles G. Morris & Albert A. Maisto (c) 2005 Prentice Hall

gender issues27
Gender Issues
  • Sexual orientation
    • Gender to which one is sexually attracted

Psychology: An Introduction 12/e - Charles G. Morris & Albert A. Maisto (c) 2005 Prentice Hall

race and ethnicity issues
Race and Ethnicity Issues
  • Race is a subpopulation defined by identifiable characteristic, e.g., skin color or facial features
  • Ethnicity is a common cultural heritage, such as religion, language, or ancestry

Psychology: An Introduction 12/e - Charles G. Morris & Albert A. Maisto (c) 2005 Prentice Hall

culture issues
Culture Issues
  • Tangible goods and values, attitudes, behaviors, and beliefs that are passed on from generation to generation
  • Psychology must take cultural differences into account, e.g., the difference between individualistic and collectivist societies

Psychology: An Introduction 12/e - Charles G. Morris & Albert A. Maisto (c) 2005 Prentice Hall

research methods in psychology
Research Methods in Psychology
  • Naturalistic Observation
    • Systematic observation in natural setting
    • The main drawback is observer bias

Psychology: An Introduction 12/e - Charles G. Morris & Albert A. Maisto (c) 2005 Prentice Hall

research methods in psychology31
Research Methods in Psychology
  • Case Studies
    • Detailed description and analysis of one or a few people
    • Prominent in psychology
    • Observer bias is a problem
    • Unable to make generalizations past person being studied

Psychology: An Introduction 12/e - Charles G. Morris & Albert A. Maisto (c) 2005 Prentice Hall

research methods in psychology32
Research Methods in Psychology
  • Surveys
    • Questionnaires or interviews, such as polls prior to an election
    • Can generate a lot of information for a fairly low cost
    • Questions must be constructed carefully so as to not elicit socially appropriate answers

Psychology: An Introduction 12/e - Charles G. Morris & Albert A. Maisto (c) 2005 Prentice Hall

research methods in psychology33
Research Methods in Psychology
  • Correlational Research
    • Research technique based on the naturally occurring relationship between two or more variables
    • Often used to make predictions, such as the relation between SAT scores and school success
    • Cannot be used to determine cause and effect

Psychology: An Introduction 12/e - Charles G. Morris & Albert A. Maisto (c) 2005 Prentice Hall

research methods in psychology34
Research Methods in Psychology
  • Experimental Research
    • The only research method that can be used to determine cause and effect
    • Often called the experimental method

Psychology: An Introduction 12/e - Charles G. Morris & Albert A. Maisto (c) 2005 Prentice Hall

components of an experiment
Components of an Experiment
  • Participants or subjects
  • Independent variable (IV)
    • Cause (what you are studying)
    • This is the variable that is manipulated by the experimenter
  • Dependent variable (DV)
    • Effect (result of experiment)
    • This is the variable that is measured by the experimenter

Psychology: An Introduction 12/e - Charles G. Morris & Albert A. Maisto (c) 2005 Prentice Hall

components of an experiment36
Components of an Experiment
  • Experimental group
    • Receives treatment
  • Control group
    • Does not receive treatment, but is the same in every other way

Psychology: An Introduction 12/e - Charles G. Morris & Albert A. Maisto (c) 2005 Prentice Hall

research methods in psychology37
Research Methods in Psychology
  • Multimethod Research
    • Studies often combine several methods

Psychology: An Introduction 12/e - Charles G. Morris & Albert A. Maisto (c) 2005 Prentice Hall

the importance of sampling in research
The Importance of Sampling in Research
  • Sample
    • Small representative subset of a larger population
  • Random sample
    • Every subject had equal chance of being selected
  • Representative sample
    • Characteristics of participants correspond to larger population

Psychology: An Introduction 12/e - Charles G. Morris & Albert A. Maisto (c) 2005 Prentice Hall

ethics in research on humans
Ethics in Research on Humans
  • Participants must be informed of nature of research
  • Informed consent should be documented
  • Risks and limits on confidentiality must be explained

Psychology: An Introduction 12/e - Charles G. Morris & Albert A. Maisto (c) 2005 Prentice Hall

ethics in research on humans40
Ethics in Research on Humans
  • If participation is a course requirement in an academic setting, alternative activities must be offered
  • Deception cannot be used about aspects of research that would affect participant's willingness to participate
  • Deception about the goals of research used only when absolutely necessary

Psychology: An Introduction 12/e - Charles G. Morris & Albert A. Maisto (c) 2005 Prentice Hall

ethics in research on animals
Ethics in Research on Animals
  • Psychologists using animals must ensure “appropriate consideration of the animal’s comfort, health, and human treatment”
  • Animals must not be exposed to pain, stress, or privation when alternative procedures are available

Psychology: An Introduction 12/e - Charles G. Morris & Albert A. Maisto (c) 2005 Prentice Hall

careers in psychology
Careers in Psychology
  • Academic and Applied Psychology
    • Faculty positions
    • Research facilities
  • Clinical Settings
    • Licensed social workers
    • Counseling psychologists
    • Clinical psychologists
    • Psychiatrists
    • Psychoanalysts

Psychology: An Introduction 12/e - Charles G. Morris & Albert A. Maisto (c) 2005 Prentice Hall

licenses in psychology
Licenses in Psychology
  • Psychologists - Ph.D., Psy.D.
  • Psychiatrists - M.D.
  • Psychoanalysts - M.D. or Ph.D.
  • Social Workers (M.S.W.) - LSW
  • Marriage Family Therapists - M.A.

Psychology: An Introduction 12/e - Charles G. Morris & Albert A. Maisto (c) 2005 Prentice Hall