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Chapter 1 What is Psychology?. Chapter Preview. Defining Psychology Psychology in Historical Perspective Contemporary Approaches to Psychology What Psychologists Do Science of Psychology and Health and Wellness. Psychology: Defined. Psychology is the scientific study of

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Chapter 1 What is Psychology?

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    1. Chapter 1 What is Psychology?

    2. Chapter Preview Defining Psychology Psychology in Historical Perspective Contemporary Approaches to Psychology What Psychologists Do Science of Psychology and Health and Wellness

    3. Psychology: Defined Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes. Three Key Components • science – systematic methods • behavior – what can be directly observed • mental processes – thoughts, feelings, motives

    4. Science of Psychology • Critical Thinking • Skepticism • Objectivity • Curiosity

    5. Psychology – A General Science Psychology is not limited to the study of psychological disorders. • Freud’s view of human nature • positive psychology

    6. Narcissism Epidemic Narcissism…unusually self-confident, self-assertive, and self-centered. Generation born since 1980s “More narcissistic than early generations” vs. “Attitudes have been stable over time”

    7. History of Psychology Western Philosophy Biology and Physiology Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) • 1879 – established 1st psychology lab

    8. Wundt’s Structuralism identified structures of the mind introspection systematic, detailed self-reports

    9. James’ Functionalism identified the functions and purposes of the mind stream of consciousness human interactions with outside world why is human thought adaptive?

    10. Psychology and Evolution Charles Darwin On the Origin of Species, 1859 Natural Selection • competition for resources • genetic characteristics that promote reproduction and survival are favored • environmental changes alter course of evolution

    11. Contemporary Approaches Current Psychological Perspectives Biological Behavioral Psychodynamic Humanistic Cognitive Evolutionary Sociocultural

    12. Biological Approach The biological approach focuses on the brain and nervous system. Neuroscience • study of the structure, function, development, genetics, biochemistry of the nervous system • thoughts and emotions have physical basis in brain • allowed psychologists to better understand the brain

    13. Behavioral Approach The behavioral approach focuses on the environmental determinants of observable behavior. Notable Behaviorists • John Watson • B.F. Skinner • rejected thought processes

    14. Psychodynamic Approach Psychodynamics emphasizes • unconscious thought • conflict between biological drives and demands of society • early childhood family experiences Psychoanalysis - Freud

    15. Humanistic Approach Humanists emphasize • positive human qualities • capacity for positive growth • free will Humanistic Theorists • Carl Rogers • Abraham Maslow

    16. Cognitive Approach The cognitive approach emphasizes the mental processes involved in knowing. Information Processing …how humans interpret incoming info, weigh it, store it, and apply it

    17. Evolutionary Approach The evolutionary approach uses ideas such as adaptation, reproduction, and natural selection to explain human behavior. Evolutionary Psychologists • David Buss • Leda Cosmides

    18. Sociocultural Approach examines how social and cultural environments influence behavior and mental processes studies differences between ethnic and cultural groups within and across countries

    19. Careers in Psychology Practice / Applied Research Teaching

    20. Areas of Specialization • Physiological Psych / Behavioral Neuroscience • Sensation and Perception • Learning • Cognitive Psychology • Developmental Psychology • Motivation & Emotion • Psychology of Women & Gender • Personality Psychology • Social Psychology • Industrial / Organizational Psychology • Clinical & Counseling Psychology • Health Psychology

    21. Areas of Specialization Also (but not addressed in text beyond this chapter) • Community Psychology • School & Educational Psychology • Environmental Psychology • Forensic Psychology • Sport Psychology • Cross-Cultural Psychology

    22. Career Settings in Psychology

    23. Influence of Culture Individualistic Cultures • individuals viewed as unique and distinct from their social group • value independence Collectivistic Cultures • emphasize social group and the individual’s role within that group • value interdependence

    24. Influence of Culture Individualistic subjects • prefer to work on tasks that they have had previous success with • like to emphasize their successes Collectivistic subjects • prefer to work on tasks that they have difficulty with • self-critical view

    25. Science of Psychology andHealth and Wellness Mind-Body Connections • how the mind impacts the body • how the body impacts the mind

    26. Chapter Summary Explain what psychology is and how it differs from an every-day, informal approach to understanding human nature. Discuss the roots and early scientific foundations of psychology. Summarize the main themes of the seven approaches to psychology. List some of the areas of specialization and careers in psychology. Describe the connections between the mind and the body.

    27. Chapter Summary Defining Psychology scientific study of behavior and mental processes Historical Foundations of Psychology origins in philosophy and physiology structuralism – Wilhelm Wundt functionalism – William James evolutionary theory – Charles Darwin

    28. Chapter Summary Contemporary Approaches to Psychology • current approaches – complementary Specializations and Careers in Psychology • practice, research, teaching • academic, clinic, private practice, industry, school Science of Psychology and Health and Wellness • mind-body connection is a “two-way street”