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Cardiovascular Disease. In African American Women. By: Tove Freeman & Van Williams. What is Cardiovascular Disease (CVD)?. “ Cardiovascular Disease is an abnormal function of the heart involving the narrowing or blocking of blood vessels. ” - Cardiovascular Disease Foundation (figure 7).

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cardiovascular disease

Cardiovascular Disease

In African American Women

By: Tove Freeman & Van Williams

what is cardiovascular disease cvd
What is Cardiovascular Disease (CVD)?

“ Cardiovascular Disease is an abnormal function of the heart involving the narrowing or blocking of blood vessels.”

- Cardiovascular Disease Foundation (figure 7)

cvd in massachusetts
CVD in Massachusetts

What is a health disparity?

* Health disparity = when an incident of a disease is not equal to the general population.

How is CVD a health disparity?

* CVD is the #1 killer of women in Massachusetts, especially in the African American community.

cvd women
CVD & Women
  • Women are less likely to:
    • be screened for cholesterol or offered cholesterol lowering medications.
    • receive therapies like heparin, beta blockers or use aspirin.
    • be referred for cardiac rehabilitation
  • Different diagnostic tools:
    • Treadmill stress tests can yield both false positive and false negative caused by hormones
    • Nuclear stress testing, the breasts can compromise the images of the heart
symptoms of cvd
Symptoms of CVD
  • Chest Pain/ Chest Discomfort
  • Pain in one or both arms, left shoulder, neck jaw, or back.
  • Shortness of breath
  • Dizziness
  • Faster heart beats
  • Nausea
  • Abnormal heart beats
  • Fatigue
obesity
Obesity

Obesity in Massachusetts in 2002

  • African American adults are more likely than any other race/ethnicity to be overweight, significantly increasing their risk of cardiovascular disease.
  • About four out of five African American women are overweight or obese.

Source: Brigham and Womens Hospital (figure 1)

Source: Massachusetts Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (MABRFSS), 2007 (figure 2)

physical inactivity
Physical Inactivity

Reported Exercise in MA Adults in 2002

  • Exercise is less prevalent in the African American and Hispanic populations.
  • Less active, less fit people have a 30-50 percent greater risk of developing cardiovascular disease.

Source: Brigham and Womens Hospital (figure 3)

diabetes
DIABETES
  • Massachusetts’ African Americans are 3.2 times more likely to have diabetes than Caucasians.
  • Approximately 11.4% of all African Americans in MA aged 20 years or older have diabetes.
  • Adults with diabetes are 2-4 times as likely to die of heart disease than those without diabetes

Source: Massachusetts Department of Public Health (BRFSS) (figure 4)

Brigham and Womens Hospital (figure 5)

high blood pressure hypertension
High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)
  • Adults with hypertension are up to 4 times more likely to develop CVD.
  • African Americans are less likely to have controlled hypertension, with African American women being the least likely.
  • High blood pressure is more likely to occur at a younger age in the African American population.

Source: Brigham and Womens Hospital (figure 6)

high cholesterol
High Cholesterol
  • Too much cholesterol in your blood clogs arteries, causing atherosclerosis thus blood flow to the heart muscle is slowed down or blocked.
  • 10% decrease in cholesterol may reduce the incidence of CVD by 30%
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Works Cited

-" Brigham And Women's Hospital - A Teaching Affiliate of Harvard Medical School ." Brigham And Women's Hospital - A Teaching Affiliate of Harvard Medical School . N.p., n.d. Web. 12 July 2011. <http://www.brighamandwomens.org>. (Figure 1,3,5,6)
 
-"Cardiovascular Disease Foundation." Cardiovascular Disease Foundation. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 July 2011. <http://www.cvdf.org/>.


-"Research Activities, April 2011: Disparities/Minority Health: Blacks Less Likely Than Whites to Use Either Statins or Aspirin in the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease." Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) Home. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 July 2011. <http://www.ahrq.gov/research/ (figure 4)

"Cardiovascular - PubMed Health." National Center for Biotechnology Information. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 July 2011. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/p (figure 7)

"Modified Fat Diet Key to Lowering Heart Disease Risk." Cardiovascular Disease Foundation. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 July 2011. <http://www.cvdf.org/articletext.aspx?ARTID=352>. (figure 2)

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Works Cited

  • "CDC - DHDSP - National Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention Program - Massachusetts." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 July 2011. <http://www.cdc.gov/dhdsp/programs/nhdsp_program/ma.htm>.
  • "Framingham Heart Study." Framingham Heart Study. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 July 2011. <http://www.framinghamheartst
  • "Cardiovascular Disease Prevention Center - Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA." Massachusetts General Hospital Home. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 July 2011. <http://www.massgeneral.org/heartcenter/treatmentprograms.aspx?id=1012>.
  • "Heart disease - MayoClinic.com." Mayo Clinic. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 July 2011. <http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/heart-disease/DS01120>.
  • "Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy and Risk of Cardiov... [JAMA. 2007] - PubMed result." National Center for Biotechnology Information. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 July 2011. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17405972?dopt=Abstract>.