Neolithic Revolution Warm-up Imagine life before villages, towns and cities existed. What do you think was different about human life back then?
What invention / discovery resulted in people starting to settle down and build houses, towns, cities and led to city life as we know it today? Farming (Agriculture)
Cities and Civilizations Seminar At about 8,000 BC village life began as a result of what has come to be known as the Neolithic Revolution.
What is the REVOLUTION?A TOTALLY new way of living: From Hunter-Gatherers to Agriculture Click on words and pictures for web links.
The invention of Agriculture changed the way people lived. • Agriculture (Farming) • Growth of Cities • Division of Labor (Specialization) • Trade • Writing and Mathematics
Mesopotamia – Fertile Crescent • Sumer – The Earliest of the River Valley Civilizations • Sumerian Civilization grew up along the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers in what is now Kuwait.
Define “Fertile Crescent” A well-watered and fertile area, the fertile crescentarcs across the northern part of the Syrian desert. It is flanked on the west by the Mediterranean and on the east by the Euphrates and Tigris rivers, and includes all or parts of Israel, the West Bank, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, and Iraq. From antiquity this region was the site of sophisticated settlements.
Greeks called the northern part of the Fertile Crescent Mesopotamia “Between Two Rivers” (Tigris River and Euphrates River) The southern part of Mesopotamia was called Babylonia, originally Sumer. Which country is Mesopotamia today? (Iraq)
Sumer - Sumerians (Kuwait)ca. 3500 to 3000 BC.(ca. = circa) Sumer gave us the city-state. Define: city-state Political unit made up of a city and the surrounding lands. Each city state has its own government, even when it shares a culture with neighboring city states.
Sumerian Writing: cuneiform Click on the picture for more information about cuneiform. Click here to write like a Babylonian. Cuneiform is created by pressing a pointed stylus into a clay tablet.
Sumerians invented: • Brick technology • Wheel • Base 60 – using the circle . . . 360 degrees • Time – 60 minutes in an hour, 60 seconds in a minute • 12 month lunar calendar • arch • ramp • ziggurat
Ziggurat – Holy Mountain Click on the pictures for more information on ziggurats.
Babylon Gave us the first know written law code and was the first civilization where the citizens live by the “Rule of Law” Define “rule of law” Government by law. The rule of law implies that government authority may only be exercised in accordance with written laws, which were adopted through an established procedure.
Hammurabi’s Code - 1792 BC Hammurabi’s Code was this law code. Hammurabi ruled the Babylonian Empire for 42 years. At the end of his long reign, Hammurabi’s legal decisions were collected and inscribed on a stone tablet in a Babylonian temple. The 282 laws of the Code of Hammurabi represent one of the earliest known legal systems. For more information about Hammurabi’s Code, click here and on the picture.
“If a man stole the property of church or state, that man shall be put to death;also the one who received the stolen goods from his hand shall be put todeath.” The laws governed such things as lying, stealing, assault, debt, business partnerships, marriage, and divorce. In seeking protection for all members of Babylonian society, Hammurabi relied on the philosophy of equal retaliation, otherwise known as “an eye for an eye.”
EGYPT“The Gift of the Nile”(Herodotus) Look at the map and answer the following question: What did Herodotus mean when he said that Egypt is the “gift of the Nile?” Nile River Sahara Desert Because of the geography of the area, without the Nile River, there would be no Egypt.
Egyptians invented: • Hieroglyphics • Pyramids • Geometry • Advances in medicine and surgery
Hieroglyphics Early Egyptian writing found on tombs was indecipherable. Hieroglyphics Sacred Carving No one could read these sacred carvings until Napoleon invaded Egypt and his archaeologists found the Rosetta Stone. Click on the picture to see your name in hieroglyphics.
Video: Write a short summary of the finding, translation, and importance of the Rosetta Stone. For more information on the Rosetta Stone, log on to one of the following web sites. http://www.ancientegypt.co.uk/writing/rosetta.html OR http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/prehistory/egypt/hieroglyphics/rosettastone.html
Papyrus is one of the first examples of paper. It is created from reeds growing along the Nile River. Papyrus