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1. The hidden crisis: Armed conflict and education. Karen Moore Launch organized by IBE, RECI and SDC Bern, 20 May 2011. Nine EFA GMRs to date…. 2002 Education for All – Is the world on track? 2003/4 Gender and Education for All – The leap to equality

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the hidden crisis armed conflict and education

1

The hidden crisis:Armed conflict and education

Karen Moore

Launch organized by IBE, RECI and SDC

Bern, 20 May 2011

slide2

Nine EFA GMRs to date…

2002 Education for All – Is the world on track?

2003/4 Gender and Education for All – The leap to equality

2005 Education for All – The quality imperative

2006 Literacy for life

2007 Strong foundations – Early childhood care and education

2008 Education for All by 2015. Will we make it?

2009 Overcoming inequality: Why governance matters

2010 Reaching the marginalized

2011 The hidden crisis: Armed conflict and education

2012 Skills development

slide3

Key messages of 2011 EFA – GMR

  • Time is running out – the world is not on track
  • Education should be at the centre of development
  • Armed conflict is a major obstacle to Education for All
  • Education can fuel conflict…. and be an engine for peace
monitoring the six efa goals
Monitoring the six EFA goals
  • Goal 1: Early childhood care and education
    • Slow progress in improving child nutrition
    • Maternal education matters for child survival
  • Goal 2: Universal primary education
    • Uneven progress across and within countries, and dropouts eroding enrolment gains
    • But ‘success stories’ demonstrate potential for accelerated progress
67 million children out of school in 2008 and progress is slowing
67 million children out of school in 2008 – and progress is slowing

Short-run projections

Long-run projections

The long-run trend is optimistic compared to the more recent trend observed

120

Global number

106 Million

100

80

67 million

Out-of-school children (millions)

60

43 million

40 million

40

29 million

128 countries were used for projections

20

2008

2015

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

monitoring the six efa goals1
Monitoring the six EFA goals
  • Goal 1: Early childhood care and education
    • Slow progress in improving child nutrition
    • Maternal education matters for child survival
  • Goal 2: Universal primary education
    • Uneven progress across and within countries, and dropouts eroding enrolment gains
    • But ‘success stories’ demonstrate potential for accelerated progress
  • Goal 3: Youth and adult learning
    • Growing demand for secondary and tertiary education – but large global inequalities, weak links to employment
    • 74 million adolescents out of school
monitoring the six efa goals2
Monitoring the six EFA goals
  • Goal 4: Adult literacy
    • 796 million illiterate adults, two-thirds women
    • Absolute numbers still rising in some regions, yet progress is possible
  • Goal 5: Gender parity and equality
    • 69 countries still to achieve gender parity at primary level; in 26, fewer than 9 girls for every 10 boys
    • Parity would mean 3.6 million more girls in primary school
  • Goal 6: Quality
    • Large inequalities in achievement levels across and within countries
    • Quality/quantity trade-offs are not inevitable
financing education for all
Financing Education for All
  • Many national governments need to increase education financing
  • National governments need to mobilize additional resources
  • Donors are falling short of their commitments
  • New and innovative funding could help close the financing gap
armed conflict and education
Armed conflict and education
  • Armed conflict is a barrier to Education for All
  • Conflict destroys opportunities for education
  • Education can contribute to the processes that fuel conflict
slide10

Education’s hidden crisis in conflict-affected states

  • Children in conflict affected poor countries:
  • 24% of all children in the poorest countries
  • 28 million out of school
  • 47% of out of school children in the poorest countries

Under-5 Mortality rate

24%

0

50

100

150

47%

Per 1,000 births

Stunting

0

20

40

60

%

Non-conflict affected

Conflict-affected

slide11

Conflict reinforces education inequality

D. R. Congo

  • Within countries, conflict-affected areas are at the bottom of the national education league table
  • Within these areas, it is the poor and girls who are worst affected

Poorest 20% female

40%

North Kivu

30%

Population aged 17-22 with fewer than 2 years of education

20%

Richest 20% male

10%

0%

slide12

Impact of wars on children, teachers and schools

  • Children, teachers, schools on the front-line
  • Conflict-related poverty and disease are a major killer
  • Armed conflicts within countries; indiscriminate use of force and targeting of civilians
  • Rape and sexual violence are a widespread ‘terror tactic’
military spending diverting education resources
Military spending diverting education resources

Pakistan

Angola

Chad

Guinea

Bissau

-

Afghanistan

  • 21 of the world’s poorest developing countries that spend more on military budgets than primary education
  • 10% of their military spending could put 9.5 million children into school

Kyrgyzstan

Burundi

Mauritania

D. R. Congo

Bangladesh

Ethiopia

Togo

Yemen

Uganda

Vietnam

Burkina Faso

Mali

Nepal

Sierra Leone

Cambodia

C. A. R.

Gambia

Cote d'Ivoire

Madagascar

Kenya

Senegal

U. R. Tanzania

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

Ratio of military to primary education expenditure

six days of military spending could close the efa gap
Six days of military spending could close the EFA gap

US$1029 billion Total annual military spending by donor countries

number of days of military spending needed to close the EFA funding gap

6

aid follows security agendas
Aid follows security agendas

Aid is skewed towards a small group of countries identified as national security priorities

Aid to basic education

2002

-

2003

2007

-

2008

200

180

Constant 2008 US$ millions

160

140

120

100

80

60

40

20

0

Chad

Afghanistan

Sudan

Somalia

D.R. Congo

Pakistan

Iraq

Cote d'Ivoire

C.A.R.

slide16

The reverse cycle – education can contribute to conflict

  • Failing youth aspirations and weak link to labour markets
  • Unequal provision fuels social disparities and resentment
  • Curriculum reinforcing ethnic, language and religious divisions
slide17

Hidden crisis in education reinforced by four failures

  • Protection of children, teachers and civilians from human rights abuses
  • Provision of education to vulnerable populations trapped in violent conflict, and to refugees and internally displaced people
  • Reconstruction to seize the education peace premium
  • Peacebuilding to unlock the potential of education as a force for peace
slide18

Failures of protection

  • Some advances over the past decade:
    • Monitoring and Reporting Mechanism on children in armed conflict
    • Secretary General reports to the Security Council
    • Resolutions and strengthened leadership on rape and other sexual violence
  • But:
    • Monitoring and Reporting Mechanism remains fragmented and partial
    • Insufficient weight attached to protection of schools
    • ‘Naming and shaming’ is not enough
protecting education
Protecting education
  • More integrated monitoring across UN system
  • UNESCO to provide leadership in monitoring attacks on education
  • Support national plans for prevention and punishment of human rights abuses
  • High level commission on rape and sexual violence, linked to International Criminal Court
failures of provision
Failures of provision
  • Conflict-affected communities place high priority on education
  • But humanitarian agencies do not recognize education as ‘life-saving’ – education is ‘poor neighbour’ in humanitarian aid system: only 2% of funding
  • Humanitarian aid delivers short-term and unpredictable aid for long-term emergencies
  • Refugees have strong rights but weak entitlements / IDPs have weak rights and entitlements
providing education
Providing education

Humanitarian aid in 2009 – education only 2%

Education received

US$ Million

only 2% of all

funding.

4000

Requested amount

3500

Funding received

3000

2500

2000

1500

1000

500

0

Education

Food

Health

Multi

-

sector

Shelter and

Coordination

Water and

Agriculture

Economic

Protection,

Mine action

non

-

food

and support

sanitation

recovery and

human rights,

items

services

infrastructure

rule of law

slide22

Long-term humanitarian aid

Humanitarian aid delivers short-term and unpredictable aid for long-term emergencies

Other recipients

1 256

Major recipients:

754

Short term

1 823

6

countries

Sudan

D.R. Congo

Medium term

O. Palestinian T.

3 958

US$ millions

Afghanistan

Somalia

Long term

Iraq

providing education1
Providing education
  • Change humanitarian mindset
  • Increase humanitarian pooled funding to US$ 2 billion annually, and ensure that education gets the same share of request funded as others sectors.
  • Develop a more effective assessment system to gear financing to needs
  • Strengthening refugee entitlements (Jordan) and internally displaced (Colombia, Kampala Convention)
failures of reconstruction
Failures of reconstruction
  • Slow and fragmented responses to opportunities for peace
  • Continued reliance on humanitarian aid, and limited provision of long-term assistance
  • Insufficient investment in building capacity of the education system
reconstructing education
Reconstructing education
  • Make an early transition to long-term development assistance (Sierra Leone vs. Liberia)
  • Focus on capacity-building, including developing education management information systems (Afghanistan, Sierra Leone, Somaliland)
  • Strengthen the EFA Fast Track Initiative through US$6 billion per year replenishment – with more flexible rules for conflict-affected states
failures of peacebuilding
Failures of peacebuilding
  • Education insufficiently integrated into strategies for conflict prevention and post-conflict peace-building
  • Limited efforts to undertake conflict risk assessments for education policy
  • Gap between principles and policy implementation (Bosnia and Herzegovina)
building peace
Building peace
  • Education for equality and shared identity - e.g. curriculum, language of instruction (Northern Ireland, U.R. Tanzania)
  • Make schools non-violent environments
  • Expand the UN Peacebuilding Fund, enhancing the role of UNESCO and UNICEF
conclusion an agenda for change
Conclusion: An agenda for change
  • Strengthen human rights protection for children caught up in conflict
  • Put education at the centre of humanitarian responses
  • Start early, and stay for the long haul, for reconstruction
  • Use education as a force for peace
www efareport unesco org

1

www.efareport.unesco.org