VOLLEYBALL LEVEL 2 Written and edited by: Barb Maue, Ed Vesely, Nancy Nester, and the IHSA
CONFLICT RESOLUTION • RECOGNIZE THE CONFLICT • DISFUSING THE TIME BOMB - HOW IS IT DONE? • SHARPEN YOUR SKILLS - WHAT SKILLS ARE NEEDED?
WHAT IS CONFLICT? • DIRECT OPPOSITION, A CLASH OR DISAGREEMENT BETWEEN PEOPLE • CONFLIFTS ARE EXPERIENCED AT HOME, WORK, SOCIAL RECREATION AND OFFICIATING A CONTEST • AS LONG AS YOU HAVE PEOPLE DEALING WITH PEOPLE, MAKING DECISIONS OR MEETING DEADLINES - YOU WILL HAVE CONFLICT
WHAT TYPE OF CONFLICTS? • Pre-existing (carry over from previous contest) • Spontaneous Reaction - reaction in a critical time in the contest • Cumulative Response - series of calls or bad breaks that do not favor one team
RESOLVING CONFLICT • FOR YEARS PEOPLE IN AUTHORITY JUST TOLD OTHERS WHAT TO DO • NOW, PEOPLE WANT TO BE HEARD AND HAVE A SAY IN WHAT IS HAPPENING • THEREFORE, COMMUNICATION BECOMES VERY IMPORTANT IN RESOLVING CONFLICT
RESOLVING CONFLICT • APPROACH THE CONFLICT COLLABORATIVELY - WORK WITH COACHES AND/OR YOUR PARTNER(S) • SIMPLE COMMUNICATION IS AT THE HEART OF CONFLICT RESOLUTION • WITH EVERY CONFLICT - IT’S A MATTER OF LISTENING AND SEEKING TO UNDERSTAND THE PROBLEM • MUST BE DONE WITHIN THE FRAMEWORK OF THE CONTEST
LEVELS OF CONFLICT • INFORMAL - MORE OFTEN HANDLED QUICKER, LESS NOTICEABLE BY OTHERS - QUICK COMMENTS TO COACHES AND PARTICIPANTS • FORMAL - NEEDS MORE ATTENTION MORE SKILLS NECESSARY TO RESOLVE OR UNDERSTAND WHAT THE COACH, PLAYER AND OFFICIAL HAS HEARD OR SEEN
KEY COMPONENTS IN RESOLVING CONFLICT • GREAT LISTENING SKILLS • FLEXIBILITY • WILLINGNESS TO CHANGE • AGREE TO DISAGREE
LISTENING SKILLS • MAINTAIN EYE CONTACT • DO NOT INTERRUPT - LET THEM FINISH • GOOD POSTURE - MAINTAIN A NON-THREATENING POSTION • MENTALLY REHEARSE SITUATIONS YOU MIGHT BECOME EMOTIONAL IN
FLEXIBILITY • BE ABLE TO ADJUST TO ANY SITUATION • DO NOT TRY TO HANDLE THE SITUATION ALONE - USE YOUR PARTNER(S) • UNDERSTAND YOU ARE NOT GOING TO PLEASE EVERYONE - AGREE TO DISAGREE - THIS IS A TWO WAY STREET, BUT THE OFFICIAL HAS FINAL SAY
WILLINGNESS TO CHANGE • GET THE CALL RIGHT - USE YOUR PARTNER(S) • IF CHANGE IS NECESSARY - MAKE THE CHANGE • SUPPORT YOUR PARTNER(S) - YOU ARE A TEAM • UNDERSTAND THE PSYCHOLOGY OF COACHES AND WHAT MOTIVATES THEM - COMMUNICATE WITH THEM - KNOW YOUR COACH
DEFUSING THE SITUATION • NORMAL CONTEST SITUATIONS WILL NOT BE STOPPED • USE VISUAL ACKNOWLEDGMENT WITH COACH OR PARTICIPANTS • DIRECT EYE CONTACT OR USE CAUTION SIGN.
INFORMAL CONFLICT • USE SHORT VERBAL EXPLANATION • “I HEAR YOU, I WILL WATCH FOR THAT” • “I DID NOT SEE IT THAT WAY” • USE HUMOR ONLY WHEN APPROPRIATE - TIMING IS OF THE UTMOST IMPORTANCE WITH HUMOR • MOST OF ALL - KNOW YOUR AUDIENCE
FORMAL CONFLICT • CONTEST WILL TEMPORARILY BE STOPPED • YOU WILL BE DIRECTLY CONFRONTED BY THE COACH. YOU MUST EVALUATE COACH’S DEGREE OF INTENSITY. LISTEN, BE FLEXIBLE, EVALUATE THE SITUATION AND MAKE CHANGE IF NECESSARY • HELP YOUR PARTNER WITH POSITVE INFORMATION - LET PARTNER MAKE THE CALL
FORMAL CONFLICT • DEFUSE THE SITUATION - DO NOT ABUSE IT - GET EVERYONE CALMED DOWN IF POSSIBLE • ESTABLISH YOUR COMFORT ZONE AND AVOID LETTING A COACH INTO YOUR ZONE OF COMFORT • DO NOT LOSE YOUR COMPOSURE - THIS IS INEXCUSABLE
FORMAL CONFLICT • ALWAYS DISPLAY PROPER PHYSICAL DEMEANOR • GOOD EYE CONTACT • PROPER POSTURE • LISTEN RATHER THAN CHALLENGE • GIVE QUICK PRECISE EXPLANATION AND MOVE FORWARD
FORMAL CONFLICT • CLOSE THE SITUATION AS RAPIDLY AS POSSIBLE • YOU CAN USE THE FOLLOWING: “COACH, I SAW IT DIFFERENTLY THAN THAT” • “WE NEED TO GET BACK TO THE CONTEST” • REMEMBER DEFUSE RATHER THAN ABUSE
Promotion • Active officials may go for promotion to the next level after completing two years at current level • Registered to Recognized • Submit application by published deadline • Submit part 1 test and achieve an 85% on test • Current rules meeting attendance • Take part 2 exam on published date and achieve an 85% on the test • Evaluations – You will need to get 3 letters of recommendation to be sent in with your application – 1 from a certified official, 1 from a school, and the 3rd from either a certified official or a school.
Promotion • Recognized to Certified • Current rule meeting attendance • Submit part 1 exam and score at least 90% • Submit application by published deadline • Achieve an 85% on part 2 exam (which is a closed book exam) • Evaluations – You will need to get 3 letters of recommendation to be sent in with your application – 1 from a certified official, 1 from a school, and the 3rd from either a certified official or a school.
Official Association Benefits • Opportunity for education, mentoring and socialization • Weekly or monthly meetings conduct to help promote officiating in that sport • Discussion topics related to current issues • Discussion of specific situation that occurred relating to that sport • May conduct certified clinics for membership
State Series Assigning Process • To be eligible for consideration for assignment an official must • have current certified clinic (6 hour basketball) • current rules meeting attendance • not on probation • availability updated
State Series Assigning Process • Assignments are based on the following: • power rating of an official • percentile ranking of coaches and officials ratings • percentile ranking of top 15 list provided by school, assignors and recognized associations • geographic representation
State Series Assigning Process • Power Rating • total of 40 points 8 points in six areas • part one exam • promotion level x-r-c • previous tournament experience • coaches and officials ratings • top 15 list (schools, assignors and associations) • number of contests worked • level 2 clinic • clinic frequency
State Series Assigning Process • Information on each official is reviewed before assignment to state series • power rating • percentile ranking of the official’s ratings • percentile ranking of the official’s top 15 list • promotional level (x-r-c) - years as an official • previous state series experience • contest worked (sorted A/AA, boys, girls) • last clinic - date of rule meeting attendance
State Series Assigning Process • Schools are notified electronically of officials assigned. • Officials are notified of their assignment by mail or electronically to their own personal site if they have notified the IHSA on their personal site that they want to be contacted electronically of their assignment.
Communication • Ask questions • Frequent eye contact between officials during the match • If necessary, do not be afraid to call an official’s time out to collaborate with your partner • Always communicate the decisions with coaches, captains, and table
PREVENTIVE OFFICIATING • Preventive officiating and taking care of little things before they become BIG things will make your match more enjoyable to work. • Prematch Verify the legality of uniforms and equipment • Discuss sportsmanship expectations • Check on rosters and lineups • Count the number of players on the court and compare that with the number on the team roster • Check playing area for special/unusual ground rules
PREVENTIVE OFFICIATING • Verify uniform numbers with those on roster • If using libero, verify uniform numbers • Look for jewelry, hair devices, or any other possible illegal device or embellishment • Make sure that captain has been designated • If not recorded, check to see if libero will be used • During play • Anticipate problems and be on the look out • When captain is removed, ask coach who will be captain • Warn the serving team of a possible screen • Use your floor captains to remedy situations before they become a problem
PREVENTIVE OFFICIATING • Deny a second substitution during the same dead ball or time-out • Correct improper substitution without penalty unless excessive • On a close, but legal, back row player violation, give safe sign • DO NOT ignore the coach – have a quick answer ready for a questioning coach • DO NOT let preventive officiating get in the way of the flow of the match • Diffuse small unsportsmanship issues quickly
INFORMAL (Discreet) SIGNALS – used by second referee • Make sure to discuss the use of these signals with your partner prior to the contest • Given as discreet signal to first referee – DO NOT BLOW THE WHISTLE • To increase visibility during a rally, step further to the side of the standard • ball handling calls out of the sight of the first referee • down ball vs. pancake save • back-row player foul – this can be a delayed call
INFORMAL SIGNALS – used by second referee • touches by the receiving team on a ball going out of bounds • four hits • position of setter prior to serve – ex. discreet signal with his/her hand on each leg to identify position (front or back row) • game/match point – place index finger flat against the shoulder closest to the serving team
Just because you make this discreet signal does not mean the first referee will make that call. He/she may have seen something differently. These situations should be discussed after the game. Some officials, as second referee, prefer to blow the whistle and make the illegal back row player call. This should be discussed with your partner. Either way, the call should be made.
INJURY TIME-OUT • First referee stops play at earliest possible time • Second referee has timer start clock for 30 seconds • Before 30 seconds expires, coach is asked for decision • injured player remains in game • injured player is replaced • take a time out, if team has one remaining
Resumption of play depend on when injured player can be moved • If delay is long, players shall be allowed to go to benches or warm up at safe distance. • If player can receive proper treatment during the injury time-out, the player may remain in the game, unless that player was rendered unconscious. • If player’s uniform has a saturated area of blood, the uniform must be changed. • Ensure proper clean-up
STARTING THE RALLY • When • On or just before the first referee whistles for serve • Position • 1-2 meters back from standard • 1-2 meters on side of receiving team • Square to court • Focus • Receiving team • Watching for • Position faults
TRANSITION TO NET • When • On contact of serve • Position • 1-2 meters back from standard • Slightly on side of receiving team • Focus • Blockers and the attack zone • Watching for • Net violations • Illegal attacks or blocks • Center line violations
DURING ATTACK • When • After the set • Position • 1-2 meters back from standard • Slightly on side of blocking team • Focus • Along the net • Watching for • Net violations • Touches by blockers
AFTER THE ATTACK • When • As the attackers and blockers land • Position • 1-2 meters back from standard • Slightly on side of blocking team • Focus • Along net and centerline • Watching for • Net violations • Centerline violations
TRANSITION TO OPPOSITE SIDE • When • Move quickly after attackers/blockers have landed and are under control • Be in position before 2nd contact • Position • 1-2 meters back from standard • Slightly on side of NEW blocking team • Focus • Blockers plus attack zone • Down and through the net • Watching for • Net violations • Illegal attacks or blocks
DURING NEXT ATTACK • When • After the set • Position • 1-2 meters back from standard • Slightly on side of NEW attacking team • Focus • Along the net • Watching for • Net violations • Touches on blockers
AFTER THE RALLY • When • After the whistle • Position • Away from the standard • Square to the court • Focus • Along the net • Through the attack zone to the first referee • Signaling • Net violations, touches by defense • Other appropriate faults OR mimic the first referee’s signal
BETWEEN RALLIES • When • After the signals • Position • Moving towards the rally starting position • Focus • Scanning from bench to bench • Pay special attention to receiving team on previous rally • Watching for • Substitutions • Timeout requests • Libero replacements • Taunting and talking through the net
POINTS TO REMEMBER • Always move to the proper side of the net before signaling • HOLD your in/out call. Give it only if the first referee asks for your help • Give a discreet touch signal on ball going out of bounds immediately • Proper position is the key to seeing and making the right call, so move quickly • Always mimic the first referee’s signals
Back Row Player Fouls • Back Row Attack • Back Row Blocker
Back Row Attack • Attack – any action other than a block or serve that directs the ball toward the opponent’s court. A team’s third hit is always considered an attack. • Ball Position • Completely above the height of the net • Player Position • On or in front of the attack line or its out-of-bounds extension, OR • In the air, having left the floor while on or in front of the attack line or its out-of-bounds extension
9-5-4 • A back-row player is treated the same no matter what circumstances. • It is now illegal anytime a back-row player on or in front of the attack line contacts the ball completely above the height of the net and completes an attack or the ball is legally touched by an opponent.
Do not make this call until the ball is considered to have crossed the net. • Ball has “crossed the net” if: • it has passed completely beyond the vertical plane of the net OR • it is partially over the net and is contacted by an opponent OR • no part of the ball has crossed the net and it is legally blocked
Tips • Usually involves setters running 6-2 or 5-1 offenses . . . Must track setters closely • May be an intentional play (set to back row player) that isn’t quite deep enough • Give the “legal back row attack” sign (one-handed “safe” sign on side of net involved in play) if a questionable play is deemed legal • It is OK to delay this call; may need to confer with your second referee