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Gross Brain Overview: Part II . Basic Neuroscience James H. Baños, Ph.D. Overview. Organization Morphology Developmental/Evolutionary Cytoarchitectural 3-D Orientation to Internal Structures. How do we organize and characterize different parts of the brain?.

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gross brain overview part ii
Gross Brain Overview: Part II

Basic Neuroscience

James H. Baños, Ph.D.

overview
Overview
  • Organization
    • Morphology
    • Developmental/Evolutionary
    • Cytoarchitectural
  • 3-D Orientation to Internal Structures
slide4
How do we organize and characterize different parts of the brain?
    • Morphology
    • Developmental/Evolutionary Origins
    • Cytoarchitecture
    • Function
slide6
Frog

Rat

What’s changing?

Cat

Monkey

Human

slide8
The term “gyrus” is sometimes used broadly and doesn’t always

refer to a single well-defined ridge on the surface of the brain.

The distinctions between large gyri are sometimes better seen in

coronal sections.

hemispheres
Hemispheres

Longitudinal

Fissure

lobes
Lobes

Central (Rolandic) Sulcus

Lateral (Sylvian) fissure

Parieto-occipital fissure

lobes11
Frontal

Parietal

Temporal

Occipital

Lobes

Cingulate Gyrus

“Limbic Lobe”

brain stem
Brain Stem

Thalamus

Hypothalamus

Midbrain

Pons

Medulla

cerebellum superior aspect
Cerebellum: Superior Aspect
  • 2 Hemispheres
  • Vermis

Ant

cerebellum posterior aspect
Hemisphere

Vermis

Hemisphere

Cerebellum: Posterior Aspect

Anterior Lobe

Primary Fissure

Posterior Lobe

cerebellum mid saggital
Cerebellum: Mid-Saggital

Anterior Vermis

Posterior Vermis

developmental origins
Developmental Origins
  • Areas of the Brain can be characterized by the embryonic origins of the tissue.
  • Nervous system begins as a tube that differentiates into three vessicles:
    • Prosencephalon
    • Mesencephalon
    • Rhombencephalon

Three Vessicle Stage

developmental origins18
Developmental Origins
  • Prosencephalon differentiates:
    • Telencephalon -- beginnings of hemispheres
    • Diencephalon
  • Rhombencehphalon differentiates
    • Metencephalon
    • Meyelencephalon
  • We use this terminology to describe the parts of the brain that develop from these vessicles

Five Vessicle Stage

organization
Organization
  • Telencephalon
    • Cortex
    • Basal Ganglia
    • Limbic System
    • Hippocampus
organization21
Organization
  • Diencephalon
    • Thalamus
    • Hypothalamus
organization22
Organization
  • Mesencephalon
    • Midbrain
organization23
Organization
  • Metencephalon
    • Cerebellum
    • Pons
organization24
Organization
  • Myelencephalon
    • Medulla
major internal structures
Major Internal Structures
  • Ventricular System
  • Amygdala (helpful landmark)
  • Thalamus/Hypothalamus/brain stem
  • Basal Ganglia
    • Caudate Nucleus
    • Putamen
    • Globus Pallidus
  • Hippocampal formation
    • Hippocampus
    • Fimbria
    • Fornix
  • Major white matter landmarks
    • Corpus callosum
    • Internal capsule
evolution and development
Evolution and Development

Frog

Rat

Cat

Monkey

Human

evolution and development30
Evolution and Development

Frog

Rat

Cat

Monkey

Human

?

evolution and development31
Evolution and Development

Ventricles

Basal Ganglia

Hippocampus

evolution and development32
Evolution and Development

Why not the thalamus?

ventricles
Ventricles

Lateral Ventricles

Third Ventricle

Fourth Ventricle

ventricles35
Ventricles
  • Ventricles are connected (communicate)
    • Intraventricular Foramina (of Monroe)
      • Lateral Ventricles to Third Ventricle
      • Wide, oval hole
    • Cerebral Aqueduct (of Sylvius)
      • Third Ventricle to Fourth
      • Long, thin channel
    • Foramen of Magendie
      • Median aperture -- Fourth ventricle to subarachnoid space
    • Foramina of Luschka
      • Lateral apertures -- Fourth ventricle to subarachnoid space
ventricles36
Ventricles

Foramen of Monroe

Aqueduct of Sylvius

Foramina of Luschka

Foramen of Magendie

choroid plexus and csf
Choroid Plexus and CSF
  • Choroid Plexus
    • Spongy tissue located in the ventricles
    • Rich capillary bed
    • Pia Mater
    • Choroid endothelial cells
  • Produces CSF
    • About .35 ml per minute
    • Total volume 70-120 ml
csf flow
CSF Flow
  • Lateral ventricles
  • Foramina of Monroe
  • 3rd ventricle
  • Aqueduct of Sylvius
  • 4th Ventricle
  • Foramen of Magendie/foramina of Lushka
  • Subarachnoid Space
  • Arachnoid granulations (absorption)
  • Superior sagittal sinus
csf absorption
CSF Absorption
  • CSF flows to the dorsal surface of the brain, where arachnoid granulations form a one-way valve and let the excess CSF enter the veinous drainage of the superior sagittal sinus
basal ganglia caudate nucleus
Basal Ganglia -- Caudate Nucleus
  • Basal Ganglia
    • Caudate Nucleus
    • Putamen
    • Globus Pallidus
    • Sometimes Amygdala
hippocampus
Hippocampal formation

Fimbria

Fornix

Anterior Commissure

Amygdala

Hippocampus
coming up
Coming up…
  • Spinal cord
  • Basic Spinal Pathways
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