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Gross Brain Overview: Part II

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  1. Gross Brain Overview: Part II Basic Neuroscience James H. Baños, Ph.D.

  2. Overview • Organization • Morphology • Developmental/Evolutionary • Cytoarchitectural • 3-D Orientation to Internal Structures

  3. How do we organize and characterize different parts of the brain?

  4. How do we organize and characterize different parts of the brain? • Morphology • Developmental/Evolutionary Origins • Cytoarchitecture • Function

  5. Morphology: External Features

  6. Frog Rat What’s changing? Cat Monkey Human

  7. Sulci - The “valleys” on the surface of the brain • Gyri - The “Hills”

  8. The term “gyrus” is sometimes used broadly and doesn’t always refer to a single well-defined ridge on the surface of the brain. The distinctions between large gyri are sometimes better seen in coronal sections.

  9. Hemispheres Longitudinal Fissure

  10. Lobes Central (Rolandic) Sulcus Lateral (Sylvian) fissure Parieto-occipital fissure

  11. Frontal Parietal Temporal Occipital Lobes Cingulate Gyrus “Limbic Lobe”

  12. Brain Stem Thalamus Hypothalamus Midbrain Pons Medulla

  13. Cerebellum: Superior Aspect • 2 Hemispheres • Vermis Ant

  14. Hemisphere Vermis Hemisphere Cerebellum: Posterior Aspect Anterior Lobe Primary Fissure Posterior Lobe

  15. Cerebellum: Mid-Saggital Anterior Vermis Posterior Vermis

  16. Developmental and Evolutionary Origins: The “Cephalons”

  17. Developmental Origins • Areas of the Brain can be characterized by the embryonic origins of the tissue. • Nervous system begins as a tube that differentiates into three vessicles: • Prosencephalon • Mesencephalon • Rhombencephalon Three Vessicle Stage

  18. Developmental Origins • Prosencephalon differentiates: • Telencephalon -- beginnings of hemispheres • Diencephalon • Rhombencehphalon differentiates • Metencephalon • Meyelencephalon • We use this terminology to describe the parts of the brain that develop from these vessicles Five Vessicle Stage

  19. Developmental Origins

  20. Organization • Telencephalon • Cortex • Basal Ganglia • Limbic System • Hippocampus

  21. Organization • Diencephalon • Thalamus • Hypothalamus

  22. Organization • Mesencephalon • Midbrain

  23. Organization • Metencephalon • Cerebellum • Pons

  24. Organization • Myelencephalon • Medulla

  25. Cytoarchitectural Organization

  26. Brodmann’s Areas

  27. Internal Structure

  28. Major Internal Structures • Ventricular System • Amygdala (helpful landmark) • Thalamus/Hypothalamus/brain stem • Basal Ganglia • Caudate Nucleus • Putamen • Globus Pallidus • Hippocampal formation • Hippocampus • Fimbria • Fornix • Major white matter landmarks • Corpus callosum • Internal capsule

  29. Evolution and Development Frog Rat Cat Monkey Human

  30. Evolution and Development Frog Rat Cat Monkey Human ?

  31. Evolution and Development Ventricles Basal Ganglia Hippocampus

  32. Evolution and Development Why not the thalamus?

  33. The Ventricular System

  34. Ventricles Lateral Ventricles Third Ventricle Fourth Ventricle

  35. Ventricles • Ventricles are connected (communicate) • Intraventricular Foramina (of Monroe) • Lateral Ventricles to Third Ventricle • Wide, oval hole • Cerebral Aqueduct (of Sylvius) • Third Ventricle to Fourth • Long, thin channel • Foramen of Magendie • Median aperture -- Fourth ventricle to subarachnoid space • Foramina of Luschka • Lateral apertures -- Fourth ventricle to subarachnoid space

  36. Ventricles Foramen of Monroe Aqueduct of Sylvius Foramina of Luschka Foramen of Magendie

  37. Ventricles

  38. Ventricles

  39. Ventricles

  40. Ventricles

  41. Choroid Plexus and CSF • Choroid Plexus • Spongy tissue located in the ventricles • Rich capillary bed • Pia Mater • Choroid endothelial cells • Produces CSF • About .35 ml per minute • Total volume 70-120 ml

  42. Choroid Plexus

  43. CSF Flow • Lateral ventricles • Foramina of Monroe • 3rd ventricle • Aqueduct of Sylvius • 4th Ventricle • Foramen of Magendie/foramina of Lushka • Subarachnoid Space • Arachnoid granulations (absorption) • Superior sagittal sinus

  44. CSF Flow

  45. CSF Absorption • CSF flows to the dorsal surface of the brain, where arachnoid granulations form a one-way valve and let the excess CSF enter the veinous drainage of the superior sagittal sinus

  46. CSF Absorption

  47. Arachnoid Granulations

  48. Ventricular System plus Amygdala

  49. Ventricular System plus Thalamus

  50. Ventricular System plus Thalamus