SURFACE FINISHINGS. The art of treating the surface of building materials with a suitable covering material to make them weather resisting and decorative is called surface finishing .
The art of treating the surface of building materials with a suitable covering material to make them weather resisting and decorative is called surface finishing.
The covering material used for surface finishings are called surface finishes which are plasters, paints, washes etc.
It is provided up to 15cm height from the floor level.
It is usually consisting of the material which is used for providing margin or boarder of flooring.
It is provided to protect the walls from water in case of washing of floors
The art of covering the surface of masonry work with a suitable material is called plastering.
Before applying the plaster, the surface should be prepared properly.
The method of preparing the surface is same as described in case of cement plastering.
This type of plastering is suitable for internal renderings of buildings. But it is not commonly adopted these days.
This type of plastering is done on walls of
temporary sheds and country side buildings.
This type of plastering is suitable for external as well as internal surfaces of buildings to provide an excellent finish.
This type of plastering is suitable for internal surfaces of high class buildings but it is not commonly applied these days.
1. When a smooth and even surface is not essentially required.
2. Where it is desirable to exhibit to view the natural beauty of the materials (bricks or stones) used in construction.
3. When the workmen ship is neat and good.
The selection of particular type of pointing depends upon the types of bricks or stone used and the appearance required..
1. Flat or flush pointing
2. Struck pointing
3. Recessed pointing
5. Weather pointing
6. Keyed or grooved pointing
7. Tuck pointing
1- CONTRACTION JOINTS
(a) Complete contraction joint
(b) Partial contraction joint
(c) Dump joints
2- SLIDING JOINTS
SLIDING JOINTS (-ctd-)
3- CONSTRUCTION JOINTS
CONSTRUCTION JOINTS (-ctd-)
4- EXPANSION JOINTS
EXPANSION JOINTS (-ctd-)
EXPANSION JOINTS (-ctd-)
The arrangements made to provide free and easy access inside and outside the rooms of a building are called Doors.
Whereas, the opening provided in the boundary wall of a building for entrance and exist is known as Gate.
1- Ledged and Battened Ledged 2- Battened and Braced Door
and Braced Door
(a) Framed Flush Door (b) Solid Laminated Flush Door.
Normally the following types of floors are generally used:
The materials used for Ground floor
1- INITIAL COST
4- CLEAN LINESS OF FLOOR
1- BRICK FLOORING
2- CEMENT CONCRETE FLOORING
DISADVATAGES OF MONOLITHIC FLOORS
CEMENT CONCRETE FLOOR DETAILS
3. MOSAIC OR TERRAZO FLOORING
4. TILE FLOORING
5. GLASS FLOOR
6. ASPHALT FLOORING
7. WOODEN FLOORING
The covering provided over the top of an enclosure made for a building to keep out the sun, rain, wind and to protect the interior from exposure to the weather is known as roof.
(Sloping roofs are suitable for the area where rainfall and snowfall are heavy, whereas, flat roofs are suitable for the area where rainfall is meager i.e. of low intensity, and there is no snowfall)
Shed Roof Gable Roof
Hipped Roof Gamberal Roof
2. Gable Roof:- A sloping roof having slope in two directions is called a Gable Roof. This type of sloping roof is used for larger span.
3. Hipped Roof:- A sloping roof having slope in four directions is called Hipped Or Hip Roof. This type of sloping roof is mostly used for buildings in hilly area.
4. Gambrel Roof:- A sloping roof having slope in two directions with a break in the slope is known as Gambrel Roof. This type of sloping roof is mostly used for buildings in hilly area.
5. Mansord roof:- A sloping roof having slope in four directions with a break in slope is known as Mansard Roof
6. Saw tooth or north light roof:- A sloping roof having glazing fixed on the steep sloping sides of the roof is called Saw Tooth Or North Light Roof. This is generally used in factories where more light is required.
Ridge:- The highest point or line of a sloping roof where the two opposite slopes meet is known as ridge.
Ridge piece:- A horizontal piece of timber which runs the highest level (bridge) of a sloping roof is called ridge piece.
Eaves:- The lowest edges of the surfaces of a sloping roof are called eaves.
Eave’s board:- A wooden board fixed along the eaves at the end of common rafters is known as eaves board or facia board. Gutter is usually supported at eaves board.
Rafters:- The members which support the covering material of a sloping roof are called rafters.
Hip:- The line of intersection of sloping surfaces of a roof forming an external angle exceeding 180° is known as hip.
Hip rafter:- The rafter lying along the hip in a sloping roof is termed as hip rafter.
Valley:- The line of intersection of two sloping surfaces of a roof forming an external angle less than 180° is known as valley.
Valley rafter:- The rafter lying along the valley in a pitched roof is known as valley rafter.
Jack rafter:- The short common rafters which run from a hip rafter to the eave of a sloping roof are called jack rafters.
Common rafters:- The members supporting the battens or boardings under the covering of a sloping roof are known as common rafters.
Gable:- The end of a sloping roof finished in a vertical triangle is called gabled end or gable.
Barge:- The finished edge of slating or tiling over-hanging a gable wall is called barge.
Barge board:- Wooden planks fixed to the ends of the common rafters projecting beyond the gabled end of a sloping roof is called a barge board.
Purlins:- The wooden or steel members laid horizontally to support the common rafters of a sloping roof are called purlins.
Cleats:- The pieces of timber or angle-iron which are nailed or screwed (for timber), riveted or welded (for angle-iron) on the trusses, to support the purlins are known as cleats.
Battens:- The pieces of wood which are directly nailed to the common rafters are called battens. The roof coverings are directly laid over battens.
Pitch:- The inclination of the side of a slopping roof to the horizontal surface is called pitch of the roof. It is usually expressed as the ratio of the rise to the span or in degrees.
Truss:- A frame work of members arranged in triangles is called a truss.
Step:- The combination of a tread and a riser supported by a string is called a step.
Tread:- The horizontal top surface of a step on which foot is placed while going up or coming down a stair is known as tread.
Riser:- The vertical face of a step is called riser.
Going or run:- The horizontal distance between any two adjacent risers in a stair is called going or run.
Rise:- The vertical distance between any two adjacent treads in a stair is called rise.
Bull-nose step:- The step with one or both ends rounded is known as bull nose step. This type of step is generally provided at the bottom of a flight and is always projecting beyond the face of the newel post.
Nosing:- The projecting edge of a tread beyond its riser in a step is called nosing. The line joining nosing of all steps in a flight is known as line of nosing.
Pitch or slope:- The angle between the line of nosing and the floor or landing is called pitch or slope of a stair.
String or stringer:- The inclined support to which the ends of treads and risers of a stair are fastened is called a string or stringer.
Hand rail:- As inclined member at a convenient height projecting above steps of a stair to provide assistance and safe-guard to the users is called hand rail.
Balusters:- The vertical members provided in between the steps and the hand rail are called balusters. These members act as intermediate supports to the hand rail.
Newel or newel post:- The posts provided at the bottom, top and all the turning points in a stair to support the hand rail are known as newels or newels posts.
Soffit:- The under surface of a stair is called soffit.
Flier:-A step of uniform width is called flier. This type of step is rectangular in plan. Such steps are always preferred even at turning points of a stair as they are safe for quick movements of the uses.
Winder:- A step of non-uniform width is known as winder. This type of step is usually triangular in plan. Such steps are only provided for changing the direction of a stair and should be avoided as far as possible since they are dangerous for quick movement of the users.
Landing:- The horizontal platform provided in between any two flights of a stair is called landing. The landing which provides 90° turn in the layout of a stair is known as quarter space landing and if the turn is through 180°, it is called half-space landing
Flight:- A series of steps without any break in between is known as flight.
Head room:- The height between the line of nosing to the soffit of a flight or ceiling of roof immediately above is called head room.
Width of a stair case:- The width of enclosure accommodating the stair in a building is called width of stair case. It depends upon the layout and width of the stair.
Residential buildings = 25 cm x 16 cm
Public buildings such as theatres, colleges, banks etc
=27 cm x 15 cm or 30 cm x 14 cm.
Industrial buildings = The going should not be less than 25 cm and rise not more than 19 cm.
2. Pitch of the stair:- The pitch or slope of the stair should not be more than 40° and should not be less than 25° for comfortable ascend and descend.
3. Width of stair:- The width of a stair must not be less than 0.85 m so that a person going up can pass a person coming down without any difficulty. The minimum width of stair in a residential building should be 1.05 m whereas in case of a public building, a minimum width of 1.5 m is desirable.
4. Length of flight:- The number of steps in a flight should not be more than 15 otherwise it becomes difficult to move up and down the flight. The minimum number of steps in a flight should be 3.
5. Width of landing:- The width of landing should not be less than the width of its stair case.
6. Head room:- An adequate head-room must be provided. It should not be less than 2.1 m.
7. Winders:- They should be avoided as far as possible. But they are to be provided when the area of staircase is limited. In such case, winders should be placed at the lower end of a flight. In a quarter space i.e 90° turn, only three winders should be provided.
8. Hand rails and balustrades:- A stair should be provided with a hand rail along with balustrades to provide assistance, comfort and safety to the users. The height of hand rail should neither be more than 0.85 m nor less than 0.75m.
9. Materials:- The stair should be constructed from sound materials preferably of fire resisting quality. It should be constructed of R.C.C. according to building bye-laws being followed in the locality.
10. Location:- The staircase should be located in such a position that it is easily and quickly approached. A central position in a building would be ideal. Both light and ventilation should be available especially at turning points. In a residential building, the stair should be located near the main entrance and screened from outside for privacy. In public buildings, it should preferably be located obvious from the main entrance.
1- Straight flight stairs:- The stair which rises from one floor to another in one direction is known as straight flight or simply straight stair (see fig. 2 a). This type of stair may be constructed with or without landing. This type of stair is only suitable for a long and a narrow staircase.
2- Quarter turn stairs:- The stair which turns through 90° either to the left or to the right is known as quarter turn stair (see fig. 2 b & c). This type of stair may be provided with winders as shown in fig. 2 (b) or with a quarter-space landing as shown in fig 2(c). This type of stair is suitable where the width staircase is more but it has got limited length.
3- Half turn stairs
The stair which turns through 180° is known as half turn stair (see fig. 2 d &c). In such stairs, the adjacent flights are in opposite directions separated by half-space landings, two sets of winders or two quarter space landings according to the space available.
(a) Dog-legged stairs:- A half turn stair with no space between its flights is known as dog legged stair (see fig. 2 d). This type of stair is suitable where the width of the stair case is limited and is commonly used for single or double storied modern buildings.
(b) Open well stairs:- A half turn stair with a space (called well) between its flights is known as open well stair (see fig. 2 e and f). This stair is also known as an open newel stair when the well left between the flights is of rectangular shape see fig. 2 (e). If the space for this type of stair is limited, a short flight is introduced on the narrow side of the well with two quarter space landings as shown in fig. 2 (f).This type of stair is suitable for multi-storied buildings as in this case the well allows for top lighting.
4. Geometrical stairs: A half turn stair in which the dwell is of curved shape between the forward and backward flights is called geometrical stair (see fig. 2 g). In this type of stair, the change in direction is obtained by winders. It provides easy turning but is tiresome as it is generally without landing. This type of stair is suitable for single or double storied buildings.
5. Circular stair:- The stair which is provided in a circular stair case is called circular stair (see fig. 2 h). In this stair, the strings and the hand rails are continuous and the change in direction is obtained by winders. All the steps may be supported by a newel at the centre or there may be a circular well hole. A circular stair having all is steps radiating from a central newel is known as spiral stair. This type of stair is suitable when a limited space is available for the stair case. Iron spiral stairs are very suitable for back door entrance as they occupy very little space.
6. Bifurcating stairs:- This stair having its bottom flight wide which is divided into two narrow flights at the landing at right angles in the opposite direction is called a bifurcating stair (see fig. 2 i). This type of stair is suitable for public buildings, assembly halls, railway foot bridges etc.
Maintenance jobs ofbuilding are divided into following two categories
1. Routine maintenance
2. Special Repair
Def: The day to day or thorough repairs which are carried out in buildings after specifiedperiods are known asroutine or periodic maintenance
Explanation: Routine maintenance of buildings includes the following items of work
Def: The repairs that are done to overcome special problems as soon as they occur are known as special repairs. These repairs are very difficult and require more attention for their carrying out.
Special repairs of the buildings include the following items of maintenance works: