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Scattering Techniques. Lecture 17 G.J. Mankey [email protected] Elastic-no energy loss. Light Reflectometry Ellipsometry* X-rays Diffraction* Reflectometry Electrons Diffraction* Neutrons Diffraction Small Angle Neutron Scattering* Reflectometry*.

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scattering
Elastic-no energy loss.

Light

Reflectometry

Ellipsometry*

X-rays

Diffraction*

Reflectometry

Electrons

Diffraction*

Neutrons

Diffraction

Small Angle Neutron Scattering*

Reflectometry*

Inelastic-energy loss to excitation.

Light

Raman*

Brillouin*

X-rays

EXAFS*

Electrons

HREELS*

Ion Scattering*

Neutrons

Inelastic Neutron Scattering

Scattering
inelastic light scattering
Inelastic Light Scattering
  • Brilloin Scattering-Scattering from an acoustic phonon.
  • Raman Scattering-Scattering from an optical phonon.
exafs
EXAFS
  • Fine structure in the vicinity of the adsorption edges contains information about the local environment of the chemical species.

ref: Prof. Brian Tonner, UCF

x ray absorption
X-Ray Absorption
  • Photon energy is tuned to elemental core level.
  • Technique probes chemical composition.
  • Requires a synchrotron x-ray source and monochromator.

ref: Prof. Brian Tonner, UCF

x ray adsorption measurements
X-Ray Adsorption Measurements
  • Each method of measurement has advantages specific to the detection method.

ref: Prof. Brian Tonner, UCF

electron inelastic mean free path
The electron probing depth follows the "Universal Curve."

This is also true for electron spectroscopies.

The curve has the form:

Where A and B are material dependent parameters.

To first approximation, A and B are the same for all metals.

Electron Inelastic Mean Free Path

ref: Prof. Brian Tonner, UCF

information in xas
Information in XAS
  • The range of energy losses probed give different information about the local environment of the chemical species with the particular adsorption edge.

ref: Prof. Brian Tonner, UCF

hreels
HREELS

Ref: http://nano.kaist.ac.kr/2002ch607/Ch5-VIb.pdf

electron scattering mechanism
Electron Scattering Mechanism

Ref: http://nano.kaist.ac.kr/2002ch607/Ch5-VIb.pdf

hreels example
HREELS Example

Ref: http://nano.kaist.ac.kr/2002ch607/Ch5-VIb.pdf

ion scattering spectroscopy
Ion Scattering Spectroscopy

Ref: http://nano.kaist.ac.kr/2002ch607/Ch5-VIb.pdf

properties of neutrons
Properties of Neutrons

ref: SNS Website

neutron scattering
Neutron Scattering

ref: T.E. Mason

reciprocal space
Reciprocal Space

ref: T.E. Mason

small angle neutron scattering
Small Angle Neutron Scattering
  • Neutrons probe length scales comparable to TEM and soft x-rays.
  • Neutrons are a gentle probe since their energies are of the order of a few milli electron volts as opposed to hundreds to thousands of electron volts for x-rays and electrons.

ref: Charles Glinka, NIST

contrast
Contrast
  • The contrast mechanism for neutrons scattering length density rather than electron density for x-rays.

ref: T.E. Mason

sans instrumentation
SANS Instrumentation
  • Nanoscale lengths are probed.

ref: Charles Glinka, NIST

neutrons probe magnetic structure
Neutrons Probe Magnetic Structure
  • The magnetic scattering length in Fe is 1/3 of the chemical scattering length, so SANS also probes magnetic structures.

ref: Charles Glinka, NIST

neutron reflectometry
Neutron Reflectometry
  • Q-dependent reflectivity gives interfacial roughness and correlation length.
  • Polarized reflectometry yields magnetic roughness.

ref: T.E. Mason

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