The Cold War Heats Up Chapter 18, Section 2
China turns Communist • Chiang Kai-shek – Chinese leader supported by the United States • China had a failing economy • Chinese were not happy with his leadership
China turns Communist • Mao Zedong – Communist leader who led Civil War in China against Chiang Kai-shek
Chinese Civil War • Communist pushed the Chinese government into exile in Taiwan. • America refused to recognize the new communist government • People’s Republic of China
China turns Communist • American policy of containment had failed • Conservatives started accusing the American government of being infiltrated by Communist agents.
The Korean War • Soviet Union took control of Japanese colony of Korea north of the 38th parallel • United States took control south of this line.
The Korean War • June 1949, only 500 American troops in South Korea • SU backed North Korea in a take-over of the peninsula. • Often called “America’s Forgotten War”
The Korean War • June 25, 1950 • North Korea attacks South Korea • June 27 - Truman and 15 other countries send troops to support the South Koreans. • Under the command of General Douglas MacArthur.
The Korean War • September 15, 1950 • MacArthur leads a counterattack • Chase the North Koreans to the Chinese border (Yalu River) • Thought Korea would become one democratic country
The Korean War • November 1950 • Communist Chinese troops joined the fight when UN forces reached border
The Korean War “Our trenches…were only about 20 meters in front of theirs. We were eyeball to eyeball…We couldn’t move at all in the daytime without getting shot at. Machine-gun fire would come in, grenades, small-arms fire, all from within spitting distance. It was like World War I. We lived in a maze of bunkers and deep trenches…There were bodies strewn all over the place. Hundreds of bodies frozen in the snow.” -Beverly Scott, soldier during Korean War.
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MacArthur Controversy • General MacArthur wanted to expand the war into China, Truman did not. • MacArthur publicly criticized Truman and was fired as commanding officer • Public outrage from the “heroes' dismissal”
Settling for Stalemate • Two year conflict that ended in a standoff around the original border • Cost 54,000 American lives and $67 billion dollars • Korean war increased fears of communist aggression and fed fears of communist spies in America
The Cold War at Home Chapter 18, Section 3
Fear of Communism • House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) – investigated Communist influences in and outside the US Government
HUAC • Thought communist were putting propaganda into the film industry • Hollywood Ten – Hollywood men who refused to cooperate for constitutional reasons. • Were sent to prison for not testifying
HUAC • Blacklist – list of people condemned for being Communists in the film industry • Approximately 500 actors, writers, producers, and directors’ careers were ruined
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Spy Cases • 1948Alger Hiss was accused of spying for the Soviet Union • Richard Nixon helped to convict him and was later elected VP.
Spy Cases • 1950 • Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were convicted and executed for espionage • Were said to be involved in giving the SU information about the Atomic Bomb
McCarthy Witch Hunts • Joseph McCarthy • Republican from Wisconsin • Said Communists were taking over the government
McCarthy Witch Hunts • McCarthyism – unsupported accusations of communist activity • Made many accusations against people without producing any evidence
McCarthy’s Downfall • 1954 – accused the US Army • Televised Senate Investigation • McCarthy’s tactics lost him public support • Was condemned by the Senate • Died from alcoholism three years later.
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