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  1. Chapter 9 Turning

  2. Protected Turn • Made from a turn lane posted with signs, road marked with arrows, and a traffic signal arrow • A green arrow allows you to turn while traffic from the oncoming lane is stopped at a red light • Fully Protected Turn • If the signals allows you to make a turn only when you have a green arrow, it is a fully protected turn 9-1 Turning Basics

  3. Semiprotected Turn • Made from a turn lane but not accompanied by a special traffic signal that directs you your turn with a green arrow or special green light • Turn when you have a solid green or when there is no light but a sufficient gap in traffic • Unprotected Turn • Made from a turn lane at an intersection where there are no arrows 9-1 Turning Basics

  4. Preparing for a Turn • Scan the Roadway • Positioning your vehicle in the proper lane should begin approx. 300 feet before you reach the intersection. • Scan the roadway in front, to the sides, and to your rear • Look out for pedestrians and vehicles • Check to see if there are any signs with restrictions • Select and move to the correct lane • Sharper the turn, the slower you should be driving • Signal • At least 100 feet before the turn • Good rule of thumb – 200 feet before an intersection in an urban setting, 300 feet in a rural setting • Don’t signal too soon • Don’t want to confuse the other drivers into thinking you are going to make a turn when you aren’t 9-1 Turning Basics

  5. Things to consider • Speed • Width of traffic lanes • Turning radius of the car • Presence of obstacles, such as center dividers and parked cars 9-1 Turning Basics

  6. Can be one of the most hazardous maneuvers a driver will perform • Judging when to cross in front of oncoming traffic is the toughest part • View can be blocked • If you can’t see oncoming traffic in front of you clearly, don’t make the turn • Wait until the light turns red and the intersection clears • If you don’t think you can make it, don’t go – wait until you are comfortable with the gap 9-2 Left Turns

  7. Always prepare for a driver ahead of you to change their mind • If they are in the turn lane, they may switch and decide to go straight • If they are traveling straight, they may decide to turn at the last second • Keep your SPACE CUSHION! 9-2 Left Turns

  8. Types of Left Turns • One way to one way • One way to two way • Two way to one way • Two way to two way • Multi-lane to one lane • One lane to multi-lane 9-2 Left Turns

  9. Making a Left Turn • Wait for a gap • Move into the intersection about 10 feet from the center • Give right of way to pedestrians first, then cross-traffic in the intersection • Keep wheels straight so that if you get hit from behind, you will not be pushed into oncoming traffic • Scan the roadway you are turning onto and visualize the turn before it happens, then begin your turn • Turn into the lane nearest to you (far left) • Finish the turn and straighten out your wheel • Make sure your signal shuts off 9-2 Left Turns

  10. Left Turn Lanes • Usually painted in the center of the roadway • Has entry points • Always look in your mirrors and turn your head to make sure it is safe to enter the left turn lane • Do not enter the turn lane too early or too late • Recipe for disaster • Center Turn Lanes • Vehicles traveling in both directions can enter and use at any time • Can be used to make a left turn from a driveway or side street • Turn into the center turn lane, wait for traffic already in the road to pass, and then enter 9-2 Left Turns

  11. “Stealing” Left Turns • When drivers move into the intersection and turn behind a vehicle when the light has already turned red • Illegal and dangerous • Holds up traffic 9-2 Left Turns

  12. Making right turns is less complicated than left turns • A right turn always begins in the far right lane, or the lane closest to the curb • Tap your brakes to alert drivers you are preparing to slow down • Signal in advance to let other drivers know your intentions 9-3 Right Turns

  13. Steps for Making a Right Turn • Ensure that the intersection is clear of pedestrians and find a gap in cross-traffic • Align tires with the curve of the curb • Pre-set your turn • Scan intersection again for peds • Begin your turn if the path is clear • Turn into the lane nearest to the curb (far right), straighten wheel out and continue driving forward 9-3 Right Turns

  14. Danger on your Right Side • As you move to the far right lane to prepare for a right turn • Look for any bicyclists riding on the side of the road • Be aware of any motorcyclists that may be in our blind spot • Pedestrians could appear at any time • Signal to move to the right, check your blind spot, then move over 9-3 Right Turns

  15. Danger on your Left Side • Keep the turn tight/don’t make the turn wide • If you have to make a wide turn, do so when the oncoming lane is clear • If your vehicle makes wide turns, turn your hazards on to warn other drivers 9-3 Right Turns

  16. Danger Ahead • Make sure that you stop at the stop line or before the crosswalk before making your right turn • Be aware of pedestrians crossing from your side of the street, the opposite side of the street, or even popping out in front of you • Watch out for oncoming traffic wanting to turn left • Both of you should be able to perform your turns without interfering with each other • If turning into one lane, give right-of-way to the driver turning left 9-3 Right Turns

  17. Right Turn on a Red Light • This is a completely legal maneuver unless it is posted otherwise • Make sure you come to a stop first, and check if there are any pedestrians, bicyclists, or an vehicles that may be crossing the intersection on their green signal • Remember that pedestrians and vehicles approaching the intersection or in the intersection have the right-of-way • Just because it is legal, doesn’t mean you have to do it 9-3 Right Turns

  18. Sometimes it is necessary to reverse direction that you are traveling • Missing a street while driving and there is no way to go around the block • This can be a dangerous maneuver because you will have to cross or back into one or more lanes of traffic • Also known as a Turn About 9-4 Reversing your Direction

  19. Ways to reverse your direction (Turn About) • Two-Point Turn • Turning into a driveway either on your side of the roadway or the opposite side of the roadway • Reverse then forward • Forward then reverse • U-Turns • Dangerous and often illegal, so avoid at all costs 9-4 Reversing your Direction

  20. How to perform a U-Turn • Check to make sure there are no signs posted • Check to see where you are • In some cases it depends where you are located • i.e., business districts, school zones, fire stations • You have to know whether it is legal or not • Allow 400 feet of visibility in both directions • Make sure nothing is blocking your view • Consider the turning radius of your vehicle-you may need more room to maneuver 9-4 Reversing your Direction

  21. Three-Point Turn • No driveways are available and you can’t do a U-turn • Make sure no traffic is approaching from either direction • Signal a left turn, turn the steering wheel all the way to the left and move forward until you can’t go any further • Stop the car, turn the wheel all the way to the right, and begin to back up • Come to a complete stop, straighten wheel, and drive forward 9-4 Reversing your Direction

  22. Other ways to Reverse Direction • Drive around the block • Easiest and safest • Turn around in a parking lot • Make sure to watch out for people getting in and out of cars 9-4 Reversing your Direction