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Chapter 11. Forgetting. Memory. Internal record or representation of past experience Not necessarily the same as the original experience History & metaphors Slate  Filing cabinet  Computer. Types of Memory. Many different types of memory 2 are important for our purposes:

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chapter 11

Chapter 11

Forgetting

memory
Memory
  • Internal record or representation of past experience
  • Not necessarily the same as the original experience
  • History & metaphors
    • Slate  Filing cabinet  Computer
types of memory
Types of Memory
  • Many different types of memory
    • 2 are important for our purposes:
  • Working memory: short-term, no need to store each instance for future reference
    • e.g. matching to sample: need to remember what the sample was only until you make the choice
    • Samples change from trial to trial
  • Reference memory: long-term, remember specific information for future reference
    • e.g. maze training: remember lay-out of the maze, doesn’t change across trials
working memory
Working Memory

Trial #1

Trial #2

Trial #3

Sample:

Remember

“red”

Retention Interval:

Remember “green”

Remember

“red”

Choice:

reference memory
Reference Memory

Goal is always in the same place… remember over time!

Trial #1

Trial #2

Trial #3

Start

Food

Food

Start

Food

Start

behaviorist view of memory
Behaviorist View of Memory
  • No need to discuss “representation”
  • No focus on storage & retrieval
  • Experience’s ability to change an organism’s behaviour under certain conditions
  • Stimulus control
forgetting
Forgetting
  • Deterioration in learned behaviour following a period without practice
  • Defined behaviourally
    • Performance vs Description
  • Note: extinction is not the same as forgetting
measuring forgetting
Measuring Forgetting
  • Working memory
    • Sample (training)
    • Retention interval (usually short… seconds/minutes/hours)
    • Test
    • Next sample is different
  • Reference memory
    • Training
    • Retention interval (can be much longer… days/weeks)
    • Test
    • Samples (training) are always the same
free recall method
Free Recall Method
  • Train, wait, test
  • See how much deterioration in performance
  • “All-or-nothing” test of behaviour
  • May not be appropriate for complex tasks
  • Some elements remembered, others not
free recall
Free Recall
  • Learn:
    • Banana
    • Interesting
    • Annoy
    • Book
    • Computer
  • Recall:
    • _______________
    • _______________
    • _______________
    • _______________
    • _______________
prompted cued recall
Prompted (Cued) Recall
  • Give prompts to increase likelihood of behaviour
  • Two ways:
    • Measure deterioration (same as free recall)
      • prompts help with complex tasks where free recall task might lead to very low scores
    • Measure number of prompts needed to produce behaviour
cued recall
Cued Recall:
  • Recall:
    • Ba_________
    • In_________
    • An_________
    • Bo_________
    • Co_________
  • Learn:
    • Banana
    • Interesting
    • Annoy
    • Book
    • Computer
relearning method
Relearning Method
  • Reinstall original training procedure after retention period
  • How many trials (or time) needed compared to original training to return to initial level of proficiency?
  • Reacquisition
relearning
Relearning

Trial #1

Trial #2

Trial #3

  • Learn :
    • Banana
    • Interesting
    • Annoy
    • Book
    • Computer
  • Recall:
    • Banana
    • __________
    • Annoy
    • __________
    • __________
  • Recall:
    • Banana
    • __________
    • Annoy
    • Book
    • __________
  • Recall:
    • Banana
    • Interesting
    • Annoy
    • Book
    • Computer

Score = 2/5

Total Trials on Initial Learning = 3

Score = 3/5

Score = 5/5

How many trials to relearn after a break (retention interval)? Difference = amount of forgetting

recognition method
Recognition Method
  • Subject only has to identify material previously learned
  • E.g., distinguish between original stimulus and a number of distracter stimuli
recognition
Recognition
  • Which words were on the list?
    • Banana
    • Orange
    • Interesting
    • Annoy
    • Ugly
    • Computer
    • Table
    • Apple
  • Learn:
    • Banana
    • Interesting
    • Annoy
    • Book
    • Computer
delayed matching to sample
Delayed Matching to Sample
  • Show S+
  • Wait (Delay = Retention Interval)
  • Choose from S+ and S-
  • Working memory only

Sample

Delay

Matching

extinction method
Extinction Method
  • Train two subjects (groups of subjects)
  • Put both on extinction, but one has delay between training and extinction and the other doesn’t
  • Compare rate of extinction for two subjects
extinction methods
Extinction methods

Group 1 & 2

Learning Phase

Group 1

Extinction

Group 2

Extinction

break

Compare amount of time

gradient degradation method
Gradient Degradation Method
  • Establish stimulus control (discrimination training)
  • Measure generalization gradient
  • Repeated measure gen. grad. over time
  • If generalization gradient flattens, forgetting
gradient degradation
Gradient degradation

No Forgetting

Training: Establish gradient

Forgetting

is time a variable
Is time a variable?
  • Retention interval = Time between learning and testing
  • Greater the interval, less retained (i.e., more forgetting)
  • But, time is not an event (time doesn’t account for forgetting)
  • Need causal factors
variables are
Variables are:
  • Degree of learning (overlearning)
  • Prior Learning
    • Facilitation
    • Interference
  • Subsequent Learning
  • Context
overlearning
Overlearning
  • Learn to asymptote, then keep training
    • Learning list perfectly, then practice a few more times
  • Better recall for longer
  • Point of diminishing return
    • Not a linear relationship between overlearning and retention
    • i.e. 100% overlearningisn’ttwice as good as 50% overlearning
krueger 1929
Krueger (1929)
  • Adults learn 3 lists of 12 one-syllable nouns
    • List 1: go through list until they remember all 12
    • List 2: learn list perfectly, then go through again for half as many trials as it took to learn
      • i.e. if they took 10 trials to learn perfectly, they go through list another 5 times
    • Group 3: learn list perfectly, then go through again as many times as it took to learn
      • i.e. another 10 times
  • Relearn after various intervals
results
Results
  • Greater amount of overlearning, less forgetting
  • 100% overlearning better than 50% overlearning
  • 50% overlearning way better than 0% overlearning
    • i.e. difference between 100% & 50% was LESS THAN difference between 50% & 0%
facilitation of prior learning
Facilitation of Prior Learning
  • Previous experience makes something easier to remember
  • Meaningful material easier to retain than random material
    • e.g. Easier to learn a complete sentence than 12 random words
  • Prior experience important in determining what is meaningful (e.g., words in known or unknown language)
degroot 1966
DeGroot (1966)
  • Arranged chess pieces on board as if in the middle of a game
  • Chess masters and novices; 5 seconds to observe
  • Masters reproduced arrangement 90% of time, novices only 40%
  • Is this prior experience, or do chess masters forget less than other people?
chase simon 1973
Chase & Simon (1973)
  • Chess pieces placed randomly on board
  • Masters no better than novices at recall
  • Past learning of “legal” arrangements is what increased masters’ performance in deGroot (1966) study
interference of prior learning
Interference of Prior Learning
  • Proactive interference
  • Previous learning interferes with recall of newer learning
studying proactive interference
Studying proactive interference
  • Paired Associate Learning (PAL) technique
    • Subjects learn paired lists, tested with 1 item and must recall second
    • All learn A-C list, but some previously learned A-B list
    • In testing, give A and ask to recall C
    • Those with A-B learning have more difficulty recalling C when given A
pal example
PAL example
  • 1 group first learns:
    • Red-Apple
    • Cloud-Shoe
    • Cat-Shelf
    • Plate-Spoon
    • Carpet-Tent
  • Both groups then learn:
    • Red-Book
    • Cloud-Paper
    • Cat-Fence
    • Plate-Notebook
    • Carpet-Window
  • Both groups then RECALL:
    • Red- ________
    • Cloud- ________
    • Cat- ________
    • Plate- ________
    • Carpet- ________
levine murphy 1943
Levine & Murphy (1943)
  • Proactive interference with attitudes
  • Determine initial attitude towards communism
    • Likert Scale
  • Read pro- and anti-communism passages
  • Students who had prior pro-communist attitudes forgot anti-communist elements of passages but remembered pro-elements (and vice versa)
  • Proactive interference because attitudes are not innate; effect of prior learning
subsequent learning interference
Subsequent Learning (Interference)
  • Inactivity during retention interval leads to less forgetting than activity
  • Implies forgetting partly based on learning new material
  • Jenkins & Dallenbach (1924)

100

50

sleep

Recall (%)

awake

0 2 4 6 8

Hours after learning tested

retroactive interference
Retroactive Interference
  • New learning interferes with ability to recall earlier learning
  • PAL technique (opposite order)
    • Subjects learn A-C, but some then learn A-B
    • Test by giving A and recalling C
    • Subjects who learned A-B have worse recall for C
  • e.g. forgetting old phone numbers, license plates, passwords
pal example1
PAL example
  • BOTH groups first learn:
    • Red-Apple
    • Cloud-Shoe
    • Cat-Shelf
    • Plate-Spoon
    • Carpet-Tent
  • 1 group then learns:
    • Red-Book
    • Cloud-Paper
    • Cat-Fence
    • Plate-Notebook
    • Carpet-Window
  • Both groups then RECALL:
    • Red- ________
    • Cloud- ________
    • Cat- ________
    • Plate- ________
    • Carpet- ________

Order is just “switched” from last example

context
Context
  • Learning occurs in a context
  • Various stimuli around the learner
  • These stimuli serve as cues to evoke a behaviour
  • If stimuli absent, may have cue-dependent forgetting
  • Stimulus control
  • e.g. forgetting names when in a different context
context1
Context

Cue set, set of SD’s, has changed! Less cues to signal correct response.

SD

Colour, size, shape, etc…

perkins weyant 1958
Perkins & Weyant (1958)
  • Train two groups of rats in two mazes, one black, one white
  • 1 minute retention interval
  • Half of each group tested in original maze, half in maze of opposite colour
  • Opposite colour rats did poorly compared to original maze tested rats
kamin 1957

100

50

Avoidance (%)

0 12 24 36 48 60 72 84

Retention Interval (hr)

Kamin (1957)
  • Gave rats avoidance learning, tested at various retention intervals.
  • Time of day, internal clock
  • Internal physiological state cues recall
  • “internal” context
state dependent learning
State-Dependent Learning
  • Train under a particular physiological state (e.g., drug condition) and test under various states
  • Recall best when in the same state as training
  • Drug conditions: alcohol, caffeine, etc.
  • Internal State: tired, level of stress, emotions, etc.
application foraging
Application: Foraging
  • Food Caching
  • Cache: food store
  • Retrieval of food later
  • Spatial memory
  • Wide variety of species
  • Accuracy can be quite high for very long times
application eyewitness testimony
Application: Eyewitness Testimony
  • Notoriously poor
  • Basic issue of retention interval and forgetting
  • Also the nature of the question used to retrieve information
loftus zanni 1975
Loftus & Zanni (1975)
  • Subjects watched film of car accident
  • Asked “Did you see <the>/<a> broken headlight?”
  • “the” subjects twice as likely as “a” subjects to say “yes”
  • Actually, no broken headlight shown
  • Reinforcement history
  • Previous conditioning: “the” (definite article) implies presence; “a” implies possible presence
loftus palmer 1974
Loftus & Palmer (1974)
  • Watch film of car accident
  • “How fast were the cars going when they hit each other?”
  • Underlined word replaced with smashed, collided, bumped, contacted
  • Speed estimates varied based on wording of question
  • Reports of broken glass varied based on wording
learning to remember1
Learning to Remember
  • In essence, improving learning
  • Practice increases retention
  • Techniques:
    • Overlearning
    • Mnemonics
    • Context cues
    • Prompts
overlearning1
Overlearning
  • Practice beyond learning
  • e.g. Tiger Woods putting practice
  • e.g. Flash Cards (SAFMEDS)
mnemonics
Mnemonics
  • Rhymes, First Letters
    • HOMES, Roy G. Biv
  • Method of Loci
    • Associate learned items with locations on a well-known route
  • Peg Word System
    • 1 = “bun”, 2 = “shoe”, 3 = “tree”…
    • Also works with visual
    • 1 looks like a pencil, 2 looks like a swan, 3 is a tricycle…
mnemonic example
Mnemonic example
  • 1 – “coffee cup” – imagine using a coffee cup as a pencil holder
  • 2 – “rubber ball” – imagine a swan holding a rubber ball in its beak
  • 3 – “printer” – imagine a printer printing a piece of paper with a tricycle on it
  • 4 – “yoga mat” – imagine trying to balance in yoga positions while on top of a table (4 legs)
  • Etc….
  • The more bizarre the image, the easier it is to remember (lack of interference)
context cues
Context Cues
  • Keep context the same
    • Study in classroom
    • Pay attention to habits, internal states
prompts
Prompts
  • Creating S+’s
  • Memos, notes, calendar markings
    • Often don’t contain all info, so just a “reminder” of what needs to be done
    • E.g. “3-Choice meeting”
  • String on finger, watch beep, cell phone reminders